[ERCC4_HUMAN] Defects in ERCC4 are the cause of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group F (XP-F) [MIM:278760]; also known as xeroderma pigmentosum VI (XP6). XP-F is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by hypersensitivity of the skin to sunlight followed by high incidence of skin cancer and frequent neurologic abnormalities. Defects in ERCC4 are a cause of XFE progeroid syndrome (XFEPS) [MIM:610965]. This syndrome is illustrated by one patient who presented with dwarfism, cachexia and microcephaly. [ERCC1_HUMAN] Defects in ERCC1 are the cause of cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal syndrome type 4 (COFS4) [MIM:610758]. COFS is a degenerative autosomal recessive disorder of prenatal onset affecting the brain, eye and spinal cord. After birth, it leads to brain atrophy, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, hypotonia, cataracts, microcornea, optic atrophy, progressive joint contractures and growth failure. Facial dysmorphism is a constant feature. Abnormalities of the skull, eyes, limbs, heart and kidney also occur.
[ERCC4_HUMAN] Structure-specific DNA repair endonuclease responsible for the 5-prime incision during DNA repair. Involved in homologous recombination that assists in removing interstrand cross-link. [ERCC1_HUMAN] Structure-specific DNA repair endonuclease responsible for the 5'-incision during DNA repair.
Human XPF-ERCC1 is a DNA endonuclease that incises a damaged DNA strand on the 5' side of a lesion during nucleotide excision repair and has additional role(s) in homologous recombination and DNA interstrand crosslink repair. We show that a truncated form of XPF lacking the N-terminal helicase-like domain in complex with ERCC1 exhibits a structure-specific endonuclease activity with similar specificity to that of full-length XPF-ERCC1. Two domains of ERCC1, a central domain and a C-terminal tandem helix-hairpin-helix (HhH2) dimerization domain, bind to ssDNA. The central domain of ERCC1 binds ssDNA/dsDNA junctions with a defined polarity, preferring a 5' single-stranded overhang. The XPF-ERCC1 HhH2 domain heterodimer contains two independent ssDNA-binding surfaces, which are revealed by a crystal structure of the protein complex. A crystal structure of the central domain of ERCC1 shows its fold is strikingly similar to that of the nuclease domains of the archaeal Mus81/XPF homologs, despite very low sequence homology. A groove lined with basic and aromatic residues on the surface of ERCC1 has apparently been adapted to interact with ssDNA. On the basis of these crystallographic and biochemical studies, we propose a model in which XPF-ERCC1 recognizes a branched DNA substrate by binding the two ssDNA arms with the two HhH2 domains of XPF and ERCC1 and by binding the 5'-ssDNA arm with the central domain of ERCC1.
Crystal structure and DNA binding functions of ERCC1, a subunit of the DNA structure-specific endonuclease XPF-ERCC1.,Tsodikov OV, Enzlin JH, Scharer OD, Ellenberger T Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Aug 9;102(32):11236-41. Epub 2005 Aug 2. PMID:16076955
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↑ Matsumura Y, Nishigori C, Yagi T, Imamura S, Takebe H. Characterization of molecular defects in xeroderma pigmentosum group F in relation to its clinically mild symptoms. Hum Mol Genet. 1998 Jun;7(6):969-74. PMID:9580660
↑ Sijbers AM, van Voorst Vader PC, Snoek JW, Raams A, Jaspers NG, Kleijer WJ. Homozygous R788W point mutation in the XPF gene of a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum and late-onset neurologic disease. J Invest Dermatol. 1998 May;110(5):832-6. PMID:9579555 doi:10.1046/j.1523-1747.1998.00171.x
↑ Niedernhofer LJ, Garinis GA, Raams A, Lalai AS, Robinson AR, Appeldoorn E, Odijk H, Oostendorp R, Ahmad A, van Leeuwen W, Theil AF, Vermeulen W, van der Horst GT, Meinecke P, Kleijer WJ, Vijg J, Jaspers NG, Hoeijmakers JH. A new progeroid syndrome reveals that genotoxic stress suppresses the somatotroph axis. Nature. 2006 Dec 21;444(7122):1038-43. PMID:17183314 doi:nature05456
↑ Jaspers NG, Raams A, Silengo MC, Wijgers N, Niedernhofer LJ, Robinson AR, Giglia-Mari G, Hoogstraten D, Kleijer WJ, Hoeijmakers JH, Vermeulen W. First reported patient with human ERCC1 deficiency has cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal syndrome with a mild defect in nucleotide excision repair and severe developmental failure. Am J Hum Genet. 2007 Mar;80(3):457-66. Epub 2007 Jan 29. PMID:17273966 doi:S0002-9297(07)60094-9
↑ Svendsen JM, Smogorzewska A, Sowa ME, O'Connell BC, Gygi SP, Elledge SJ, Harper JW. Mammalian BTBD12/SLX4 assembles a Holliday junction resolvase and is required for DNA repair. Cell. 2009 Jul 10;138(1):63-77. PMID:19596235 doi:S0092-8674(09)00777-6
↑ Tsodikov OV, Enzlin JH, Scharer OD, Ellenberger T. Crystal structure and DNA binding functions of ERCC1, a subunit of the DNA structure-specific endonuclease XPF-ERCC1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Aug 9;102(32):11236-41. Epub 2005 Aug 2. PMID:16076955