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2a3i

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2a3i, resolution 1.95Å ()
Ligands:
Gene: NR3C2, MCR, MLR (Homo sapiens)
Activity: Histone acetyltransferase, with EC number 2.3.1.48
Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


Contents

Structural and Biochemical Mechanisms for the Specificity of Hormone Binding and Coactivator Assembly by Mineralocorticoid Receptor

Publication Abstract from PubMed

Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) controls sodium homeostasis and blood pressure through hormone binding and coactivator recruitment. Here, we report a 1.95 A crystal structure of the MR ligand binding domain containing a single C808S mutation bound to corticosterone and the fourth LXXLL motif of steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC1-4). Through a combination of biochemical and structural analyses, we demonstrate that SRC1-4 is the most potent MR binding motif and mutations that disrupt the MR/SRC1-4 interactions abolish the ability of the full-length SRC1 to coactivate MR. The structure also reveals a compact steroid binding pocket with a unique topology that is primarily defined by key residues of helices 6 and 7. Mutations swapping a single residue at position 848 from helix H7 between MR and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) switch their hormone specificity. Together, these findings provide critical insights into the molecular basis of hormone binding and coactivator recognition by MR and related steroid receptors.

Structural and biochemical mechanisms for the specificity of hormone binding and coactivator assembly by mineralocorticoid receptor., Li Y, Suino K, Daugherty J, Xu HE, Mol Cell. 2005 Aug 5;19(3):367-80. PMID:16061183

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Disease

[MCR_HUMAN] Defects in NR3C2 are a cause of pseudohypoaldosteronism 1, autosomal dominant (PHA1A) [MIM:177735]. A salt wasting disease resulting from target organ unresponsiveness to mineralocorticoids. PHA1A is a mild form characterized by target organ defects confined to kidney. Patients may present with neonatal renal salt wasting with hyperkalaemic acidosis despite high aldosterone levels. These patients improve with age and usually become asymptomatic without treatment.[1][2][3][4][5] Defects in NR3C2 are a cause of early-onset hypertension with severe exacerbation in pregnancy (EOHSEP) [MIM:605115]. Inheritance is autosomal dominant. The disease is characterized by the onset of severe hypertension before the age of 20, and by suppression of aldosterone secretion.[6][7][8][9] [NCOA1_HUMAN] Note=A chromosomal aberration involving NCOA1 is a cause of rhabdomyosarcoma. Translocation t(2;2)(q35;p23) with PAX3 generates the NCOA1-PAX3 oncogene consisting of the N-terminus part of PAX3 and the C-terminus part of NCOA1. The fusion protein acts as a transcriptional activator. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft tissue carcinoma in childhood, representing 5-8% of all malignancies in children.

Function

[MCR_HUMAN] Receptor for both mineralocorticoids (MC) such as aldosterone and glucocorticoids (GC) such as corticosterone or cortisol. Binds to mineralocorticoid response elements (MRE) and transactivates target genes. The effect of MC is to increase ion and water transport and thus raise extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure and lower potassium levels.[10] [NCOA1_HUMAN] Nuclear receptor coactivator that directly binds nuclear receptors and stimulates the transcriptional activities in a hormone-dependent fashion. Involved in the coactivation of different nuclear receptors, such as for steroids (PGR, GR and ER), retinoids (RXRs), thyroid hormone (TRs) and prostanoids (PPARs). Also involved in coactivation mediated by STAT3, STAT5A, STAT5B and STAT6 transcription factors. Displays histone acetyltransferase activity toward H3 and H4; the relevance of such activity remains however unclear. Plays a central role in creating multisubunit coactivator complexes that act via remodeling of chromatin, and possibly acts by participating in both chromatin remodeling and recruitment of general transcription factors. Required with NCOA2 to control energy balance between white and brown adipose tissues. Required for mediating steroid hormone response. Isoform 2 has a higher thyroid hormone-dependent transactivation activity than isoform 1 and isoform 3.[11][12][13][14][15][16][17]

About this Structure

2a3i is a 2 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

Reference

  • Li Y, Suino K, Daugherty J, Xu HE. Structural and biochemical mechanisms for the specificity of hormone binding and coactivator assembly by mineralocorticoid receptor. Mol Cell. 2005 Aug 5;19(3):367-80. PMID:16061183 doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2005.06.026
  1. Geller DS, Rodriguez-Soriano J, Vallo Boado A, Schifter S, Bayer M, Chang SS, Lifton RP. Mutations in the mineralocorticoid receptor gene cause autosomal dominant pseudohypoaldosteronism type I. Nat Genet. 1998 Jul;19(3):279-81. PMID:9662404 doi:10.1038/966
  2. Tajima T, Kitagawa H, Yokoya S, Tachibana K, Adachi M, Nakae J, Suwa S, Katoh S, Fujieda K. A novel missense mutation of mineralocorticoid receptor gene in one Japanese family with a renal form of pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Dec;85(12):4690-4. PMID:11134129
  3. Sartorato P, Lapeyraque AL, Armanini D, Kuhnle U, Khaldi Y, Salomon R, Abadie V, Di Battista E, Naselli A, Racine A, Bosio M, Caprio M, Poulet-Young V, Chabrolle JP, Niaudet P, De Gennes C, Lecornec MH, Poisson E, Fusco AM, Loli P, Lombes M, Zennaro MC. Different inactivating mutations of the mineralocorticoid receptor in fourteen families affected by type I pseudohypoaldosteronism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Jun;88(6):2508-17. PMID:12788847
  4. Riepe FG, Finkeldei J, de Sanctis L, Einaudi S, Testa A, Karges B, Peter M, Viemann M, Grotzinger J, Sippell WG, Fejes-Toth G, Krone N. Elucidating the underlying molecular pathogenesis of NR3C2 mutants causing autosomal dominant pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Nov;91(11):4552-61. Epub 2006 Sep 5. PMID:16954160 doi:jc.2006-1161
  5. Pujo L, Fagart J, Gary F, Papadimitriou DT, Claes A, Jeunemaitre X, Zennaro MC. Mineralocorticoid receptor mutations are the principal cause of renal type 1 pseudohypoaldosteronism. Hum Mutat. 2007 Jan;28(1):33-40. PMID:16972228 doi:10.1002/humu.20371
  6. Geller DS, Rodriguez-Soriano J, Vallo Boado A, Schifter S, Bayer M, Chang SS, Lifton RP. Mutations in the mineralocorticoid receptor gene cause autosomal dominant pseudohypoaldosteronism type I. Nat Genet. 1998 Jul;19(3):279-81. PMID:9662404 doi:10.1038/966
  7. Bledsoe RK, Madauss KP, Holt JA, Apolito CJ, Lambert MH, Pearce KH, Stanley TB, Stewart EL, Trump RP, Willson TM, Williams SP. A ligand-mediated hydrogen bond network required for the activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor. J Biol Chem. 2005 Sep 2;280(35):31283-93. Epub 2005 Jun 20. PMID:15967794 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M504098200
  8. Fagart J, Huyet J, Pinon GM, Rochel M, Mayer C, Rafestin-Oblin ME. Crystal structure of a mutant mineralocorticoid receptor responsible for hypertension. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2005 Jun;12(6):554-5. Epub 2005 May 22. PMID:15908963 doi:10.1038/nsmb939
  9. Geller DS, Farhi A, Pinkerton N, Fradley M, Moritz M, Spitzer A, Meinke G, Tsai FT, Sigler PB, Lifton RP. Activating mineralocorticoid receptor mutation in hypertension exacerbated by pregnancy. Science. 2000 Jul 7;289(5476):119-23. PMID:10884226
  10. Arriza JL, Weinberger C, Cerelli G, Glaser TM, Handelin BL, Housman DE, Evans RM. Cloning of human mineralocorticoid receptor complementary DNA: structural and functional kinship with the glucocorticoid receptor. Science. 1987 Jul 17;237(4812):268-75. PMID:3037703
  11. Kalkhoven E, Valentine JE, Heery DM, Parker MG. Isoforms of steroid receptor co-activator 1 differ in their ability to potentiate transcription by the oestrogen receptor. EMBO J. 1998 Jan 2;17(1):232-43. PMID:9427757 doi:10.1093/emboj/17.1.232
  12. Onate SA, Tsai SY, Tsai MJ, O'Malley BW. Sequence and characterization of a coactivator for the steroid hormone receptor superfamily. Science. 1995 Nov 24;270(5240):1354-7. PMID:7481822
  13. Hayashi Y, Ohmori S, Ito T, Seo H. A splicing variant of Steroid Receptor Coactivator-1 (SRC-1E): the major isoform of SRC-1 to mediate thyroid hormone action. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997 Jul 9;236(1):83-7. PMID:9223431 doi:10.1006/bbrc.1997.6911
  14. Spencer TE, Jenster G, Burcin MM, Allis CD, Zhou J, Mizzen CA, McKenna NJ, Onate SA, Tsai SY, Tsai MJ, O'Malley BW. Steroid receptor coactivator-1 is a histone acetyltransferase. Nature. 1997 Sep 11;389(6647):194-8. PMID:9296499 doi:10.1038/38304
  15. Jenster G, Spencer TE, Burcin MM, Tsai SY, Tsai MJ, O'Malley BW. Steroid receptor induction of gene transcription: a two-step model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Jul 22;94(15):7879-84. PMID:9223281
  16. Liu Z, Wong J, Tsai SY, Tsai MJ, O'Malley BW. Steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) enhances ligand-dependent and receptor-dependent cell-free transcription of chromatin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Aug 17;96(17):9485-90. PMID:10449719
  17. Litterst CM, Kliem S, Marilley D, Pfitzner E. NCoA-1/SRC-1 is an essential coactivator of STAT5 that binds to the FDL motif in the alpha-helical region of the STAT5 transactivation domain. J Biol Chem. 2003 Nov 14;278(46):45340-51. Epub 2003 Sep 3. PMID:12954634 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M303644200

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