The X-ray crystallographic structure of the angiogenesis inhibitor, angiostatin, bound a to a peptide from the group A streptococcal surface protein PAM
[PLMN_HUMAN] Defects in PLG are the cause of plasminogen deficiency (PLGD) [MIM:217090]. PLGD is characterized by decreased serum plasminogen activity. Two forms of the disorder are distinguished: type 1 deficiency is additionally characterized by decreased plasminogen antigen levels and clinical symptoms, whereas type 2 deficiency, also known as dysplasminogenemia, is characterized by normal, or slightly reduced antigen levels, and absence of clinical manifestations. Plasminogen deficiency type 1 results in markedly impaired extracellular fibrinolysis and chronic mucosal pseudomembranous lesions due to subepithelial fibrin deposition and inflammation. The most common clinical manifestation of type 1 deficiency is ligneous conjunctivitis in which pseudomembranes formation on the palpebral surfaces of the eye progresses to white, yellow-white, or red thick masses with a wood-like consistency that replace the normal mucosa.       
[PLMN_HUMAN] Plasmin dissolves the fibrin of blood clots and acts as a proteolytic factor in a variety of other processes including embryonic development, tissue remodeling, tumor invasion, and inflammation. In ovulation, weakens the walls of the Graafian follicle. It activates the urokinase-type plasminogen activator, collagenases and several complement zymogens, such as C1 and C5. Cleavage of fibronectin and laminin leads to cell detachment and apoptosis. Also cleaves fibrin, thrombospondin and von Willebrand factor. Its role in tissue remodeling and tumor invasion may be modulated by CSPG4. Binds to cells. Angiostatin is an angiogenesis inhibitor that blocks neovascularization and growth of experimental primary and metastatic tumors in vivo.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The crystal structure of the human Pg-derived angiogenesis inhibitor, angiostatin, complexed to VEK-30, a peptide from the group A streptococcal surface protein, PAM, was determined and refined to 2.3 A resolution. This is the first structure of angiostatin bound to a ligand and provides a model of the interaction between Pg and streptococcal-derived pathogenic proteins. VEK-30 contains a "through-space isostere" for C-terminal lysine, wherein Arg and Glu side chains, separated by one helical turn, bind within the bipolar angiostatin kringle 2 (K2) domain lysine-binding site. VEK-30 also makes several contacts with K2 residues that exist outside of the canonical LBS and are not conserved among the other Pg kringles, thus providing a molecular basis for the selectivity of VEK-30 for K2. The structure also shows that Pg kringle domains undergo significant structural rearrangement relative to one another and reveals dimerization between two molecules of angiostatin and VEK-30 related by crystallographic symmetry. This dimerization, which exists only in the crystal structure, is consistent with the parallel coiled-coil full-length PAM dimer expected from sequence similarities and homology modeling.
X-ray crystallographic structure of the angiogenesis inhibitor, angiostatin, bound to a peptide from the group A streptococcal surface protein PAM.,Cnudde SE, Prorok M, Castellino FJ, Geiger JH Biochemistry. 2006 Sep 19;45(37):11052-60. PMID:16964966
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.