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2doi

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2doi, resolution 3.10Å ()
Gene: PLG (Homo sapiens)
Activity: Plasmin, with EC number 3.4.21.7
Related: 2doh
Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


Contents

The X-ray crystallographic structure of the angiogenesis inhibitor, angiostatin, bound to a peptide from the group A streptococcus protein PAM

Publication Abstract from PubMed

The crystal structure of the human Pg-derived angiogenesis inhibitor, angiostatin, complexed to VEK-30, a peptide from the group A streptococcal surface protein, PAM, was determined and refined to 2.3 A resolution. This is the first structure of angiostatin bound to a ligand and provides a model of the interaction between Pg and streptococcal-derived pathogenic proteins. VEK-30 contains a "through-space isostere" for C-terminal lysine, wherein Arg and Glu side chains, separated by one helical turn, bind within the bipolar angiostatin kringle 2 (K2) domain lysine-binding site. VEK-30 also makes several contacts with K2 residues that exist outside of the canonical LBS and are not conserved among the other Pg kringles, thus providing a molecular basis for the selectivity of VEK-30 for K2. The structure also shows that Pg kringle domains undergo significant structural rearrangement relative to one another and reveals dimerization between two molecules of angiostatin and VEK-30 related by crystallographic symmetry. This dimerization, which exists only in the crystal structure, is consistent with the parallel coiled-coil full-length PAM dimer expected from sequence similarities and homology modeling.

X-ray crystallographic structure of the angiogenesis inhibitor, angiostatin, bound to a peptide from the group A streptococcal surface protein PAM., Cnudde SE, Prorok M, Castellino FJ, Geiger JH, Biochemistry. 2006 Sep 19;45(37):11052-60. PMID:16964966

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Disease

[PLMN_HUMAN] Defects in PLG are the cause of plasminogen deficiency (PLGD) [MIM:217090]. PLGD is characterized by decreased serum plasminogen activity. Two forms of the disorder are distinguished: type 1 deficiency is additionally characterized by decreased plasminogen antigen levels and clinical symptoms, whereas type 2 deficiency, also known as dysplasminogenemia, is characterized by normal, or slightly reduced antigen levels, and absence of clinical manifestations. Plasminogen deficiency type 1 results in markedly impaired extracellular fibrinolysis and chronic mucosal pseudomembranous lesions due to subepithelial fibrin deposition and inflammation. The most common clinical manifestation of type 1 deficiency is ligneous conjunctivitis in which pseudomembranes formation on the palpebral surfaces of the eye progresses to white, yellow-white, or red thick masses with a wood-like consistency that replace the normal mucosa.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]

Function

[PLMN_HUMAN] Plasmin dissolves the fibrin of blood clots and acts as a proteolytic factor in a variety of other processes including embryonic development, tissue remodeling, tumor invasion, and inflammation. In ovulation, weakens the walls of the Graafian follicle. It activates the urokinase-type plasminogen activator, collagenases and several complement zymogens, such as C1 and C5. Cleavage of fibronectin and laminin leads to cell detachment and apoptosis. Also cleaves fibrin, thrombospondin and von Willebrand factor. Its role in tissue remodeling and tumor invasion may be modulated by CSPG4. Binds to cells.[9] Angiostatin is an angiogenesis inhibitor that blocks neovascularization and growth of experimental primary and metastatic tumors in vivo.[10] [PAM_STRPY] Binds to human plasminogen (and plasmin) via its kringle repeats. Also binds to albumin, immunoglobulin G and fibrinogen. Could provide the bacteria with a mechanism for invasion, as streptococcal-bound plasmin could permit tissue penetration.

About this Structure

2doi is a 4 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

Reference

  • Cnudde SE, Prorok M, Castellino FJ, Geiger JH. X-ray crystallographic structure of the angiogenesis inhibitor, angiostatin, bound to a peptide from the group A streptococcal surface protein PAM. Biochemistry. 2006 Sep 19;45(37):11052-60. PMID:16964966 doi:10.1021/bi060914j
  1. Ichinose A, Espling ES, Takamatsu J, Saito H, Shinmyozu K, Maruyama I, Petersen TE, Davie EW. Two types of abnormal genes for plasminogen in families with a predisposition for thrombosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Jan 1;88(1):115-9. PMID:1986355
  2. Azuma H, Uno Y, Shigekiyo T, Saito S. Congenital plasminogen deficiency caused by a Ser572 to Pro mutation. Blood. 1993 Jul 15;82(2):475-80. PMID:8392398
  3. Miyata T, Iwanaga S, Sakata Y, Aoki N. Plasminogen Tochigi: inactive plasmin resulting from replacement of alanine-600 by threonine in the active site. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Oct;79(20):6132-6. PMID:6216475
  4. Miyata T, Iwanaga S, Sakata Y, Aoki N, Takamatsu J, Kamiya T. Plasminogens Tochigi II and Nagoya: two additional molecular defects with Ala-600----Thr replacement found in plasmin light chain variants. J Biochem. 1984 Aug;96(2):277-87. PMID:6238949
  5. Kikuchi S, Yamanouchi Y, Li L, Kobayashi K, Ijima H, Miyazaki R, Tsuchiya S, Hamaguchi H. Plasminogen with type-I mutation is polymorphic in the Japanese population. Hum Genet. 1992 Sep-Oct;90(1-2):7-11. PMID:1427790
  6. Schuster V, Mingers AM, Seidenspinner S, Nussgens Z, Pukrop T, Kreth HW. Homozygous mutations in the plasminogen gene of two unrelated girls with ligneous conjunctivitis. Blood. 1997 Aug 1;90(3):958-66. PMID:9242524
  7. Higuchi Y, Furihata K, Ueno I, Ishikawa S, Okumura N, Tozuka M, Sakurai N. Plasminogen Kanagawa-I, a novel missense mutation, is caused by the amino acid substitution G732R. Br J Haematol. 1998 Dec;103(3):867-70. PMID:9858247
  8. Schuster V, Seidenspinner S, Zeitler P, Escher C, Pleyer U, Bernauer W, Stiehm ER, Isenberg S, Seregard S, Olsson T, Mingers AM, Schambeck C, Kreth HW. Compound-heterozygous mutations in the plasminogen gene predispose to the development of ligneous conjunctivitis. Blood. 1999 May 15;93(10):3457-66. PMID:10233898
  9. Rossignol P, Ho-Tin-Noe B, Vranckx R, Bouton MC, Meilhac O, Lijnen HR, Guillin MC, Michel JB, Angles-Cano E. Protease nexin-1 inhibits plasminogen activation-induced apoptosis of adherent cells. J Biol Chem. 2004 Mar 12;279(11):10346-56. Epub 2003 Dec 29. PMID:14699093 doi:10.1074/jbc.M310964200
  10. Rossignol P, Ho-Tin-Noe B, Vranckx R, Bouton MC, Meilhac O, Lijnen HR, Guillin MC, Michel JB, Angles-Cano E. Protease nexin-1 inhibits plasminogen activation-induced apoptosis of adherent cells. J Biol Chem. 2004 Mar 12;279(11):10346-56. Epub 2003 Dec 29. PMID:14699093 doi:10.1074/jbc.M310964200

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