[CAC1C_HUMAN] Defects in CACNA1C are the cause of Timothy syndrome (TS) [MIM:601005]. TS is a disorder characterized by multiorgan dysfunction including lethal arrhythmias, webbing of fingers and toes, congenital heart disease, immune deficiency, intermittent hypoglycemia, cognitive abnormalities and autism. Defects in CACNA1C are the cause of Brugada syndrome type 3 (BRGDA3) [MIM:611875]. A heart disease characterized by the association of Brugada syndrome with shortened QT intervals. Brugada syndrome is a tachyarrhythmia characterized by right bundle branch block and ST segment elevation on an electrocardiogram (ECG). It can cause the ventricles to beat so fast that the blood is prevented from circulating efficiently in the body. When this situation occurs (called ventricular fibrillation), the individual will faint and may die in a few minutes if the heart is not reset.
[CAC1C_HUMAN] Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1C gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group. They are blocked by dihydropyridines (DHP), phenylalkylamines, benzothiazepines, and by omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). They are however insensitive to omega-conotoxin-GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA) and omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA). Calcium channels containing the alpha-1C subunit play an important role in excitation-contraction coupling in the heart. The various isoforms display marked differences in the sensitivity to DHP compounds. Binding of calmodulin or CABP1 at the same regulatory sites results in an opposit effects on the channel function.
Ca2+-dependent inactivation (CDI) and facilitation (CDF) of the Ca(v)1.2 Ca2+ channel require calmodulin binding to a putative IQ motif in the carboxy-terminal tail of the pore-forming subunit. We present the 1.45 A crystal structure of Ca2+-calmodulin bound to a 21 residue peptide corresponding to the IQ domain of Ca(v)1.2. This structure shows that parallel binding of calmodulin to the IQ domain is governed by hydrophobic interactions. Mutations of residues I1672 and Q1673 in the peptide to alanines, which abolish CDI but not CDF in the channel, do not greatly alter the structure. Both lobes of Ca2+-saturated CaM bind to the IQ peptide but isoleucine 1672, thought to form an intramolecular interaction that drives CDI, is buried. These findings suggest that this structure could represent the conformation that calmodulin assumes in CDF.
Structure of calmodulin bound to the hydrophobic IQ domain of the cardiac Ca(v)1.2 calcium channel.,Fallon JL, Halling DB, Hamilton SL, Quiocho FA Structure. 2005 Dec;13(12):1881-6. PMID:16338416
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
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