[DLDH_HUMAN] Note=Defects in DLD are involved in the development of congenital infantile lactic acidosis. Defects in DLD are a cause of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) [MIM:248600]. MSUD is characterized by mental and physical retardation, feeding problems and a maple syrup odor to the urine. The keto acids of the branched-chain amino acids are present in the urine, resulting from a block in oxidative decarboxylation. [ODPX_HUMAN] Defects in PDHX are the cause of pyruvate dehydrogenase E3-binding protein deficiency (PDHXD) [MIM:245349].
[DLDH_HUMAN] Lipoamide dehydrogenase is a component of the glycine cleavage system as well as of the alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes. Involved in the hyperactivation of spermatazoa during capacitation and in the spermatazoal acrosome reaction. [ODPX_HUMAN] Required for anchoring dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) to the dihydrolipoamide transacetylase (E2) core of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes of eukaryotes. This specific binding is essential for a functional PDH complex.
The 9.5 MDa human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) utilizes the specific dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) binding protein (E3BP) to tether the essential E3 component to the 60-meric core of the complex. Here, we report crystal structures of the binding domain (E3BD) of human E3BP alone and in complex with human E3 at 1.6 angstroms and 2.2 angstroms, respectively. The latter structure shows that residues from E3BD contact E3 across its 2-fold axis, resulting in one E3BD binding site on the E3 homodimer. Negligible conformational changes occur in E3BD upon its high-affinity binding to E3. Modifications of E3BD residues at the center of the E3BD/E3 interface impede E3 binding far more severely than those of residues on the periphery, validating the "hot spot" paradigm for protein interactions. A cluster of disease-causing E3 mutations located near the center of the E3BD/E3 interface prevents the efficient recruitment of these E3 variants by E3BP into the PDC, leading to the dysfunction of the PDC catalytic machine.
Structural insight into interactions between dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) and E3 binding protein of human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.,Brautigam CA, Wynn RM, Chuang JL, Machius M, Tomchick DR, Chuang DT Structure. 2006 Mar;14(3):611-21. Epub 2006 Jan 26. PMID:16442803
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Aral B, Benelli C, Ait-Ghezala G, Amessou M, Fouque F, Maunoury C, Creau N, Kamoun P, Marsac C. Mutations in PDX1, the human lipoyl-containing component X of the pyruvate dehydrogenase-complex gene on chromosome 11p1, in congenital lactic acidosis. Am J Hum Genet. 1997 Dec;61(6):1318-26. PMID:9399911 doi:S0002-9297(07)60233-X
↑ Brautigam CA, Wynn RM, Chuang JL, Machius M, Tomchick DR, Chuang DT. Structural insight into interactions between dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) and E3 binding protein of human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Structure. 2006 Mar;14(3):611-21. Epub 2006 Jan 26. PMID:16442803 doi:10.1016/j.str.2006.01.001