[GELS_HUMAN] Defects in GSN are the cause of amyloidosis type 5 (AMYL5) [MIM:105120]; also known as familial amyloidosis Finnish type. AMYL5 is a hereditary generalized amyloidosis due to gelsolin amyloid deposition. It is typically characterized by cranial neuropathy and lattice corneal dystrophy. Most patients have modest involvement of internal organs, but severe systemic disease can develop in some individuals causing peripheral polyneuropathy, amyloid cardiomyopathy, and nephrotic syndrome leading to renal failure.
[GELS_HUMAN] Calcium-regulated, actin-modulating protein that binds to the plus (or barbed) ends of actin monomers or filaments, preventing monomer exchange (end-blocking or capping). It can promote the assembly of monomers into filaments (nucleation) as well as sever filaments already formed. Plays a role in ciliogenesis. [ACTS_RABIT] Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells.
Participation of actin in cellular processes relies on the dynamics of filament assembly. Filament elongation is fed by monomeric actin in complex with either profilin or a Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) homology domain 2 (WH2)/beta-thymosin (betaT) domain. WH2/betaT motif repetition (typified by ciboulot) or combination with nonrelated domains (as found in N-WASP) results in proteins that yield their actin to filament elongation. Here, we report the crystal structures of actin bound hybrid proteins, constructed between gelsolin and WH2/betaT domains from ciboulot or N-WASP. We observe the C-terminal half of ciboulot domain 2 bound to actin. In solution, we show that cibolout domains 2 and 3 bind to both G- and F-actin, and that whole ciboulot forms a complex with two actin monomers. In contrast, the analogous portion of N-WASP WH2 domain 2 is detached from actin, indicating that the C-terminal halves of the betaT and WH2 motifs are not functionally analogous.
The structural basis of actin interaction with multiple WH2/beta-thymosin motif-containing proteins.,Aguda AH, Xue B, Irobi E, Preat T, Robinson RC Structure. 2006 Mar;14(3):469-76. PMID:16531231
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Haltia M, Prelli F, Ghiso J, Kiuru S, Somer H, Palo J, Frangione B. Amyloid protein in familial amyloidosis (Finnish type) is homologous to gelsolin, an actin-binding protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990 Mar 30;167(3):927-32. PMID:2157434
↑ Maury CP, Alli K, Baumann M. Finnish hereditary amyloidosis. Amino acid sequence homology between the amyloid fibril protein and human plasma gelsoline. FEBS Lett. 1990 Jan 15;260(1):85-7. PMID:2153578
↑ Ghiso J, Haltia M, Prelli F, Novello J, Frangione B. Gelsolin variant (Asn-187) in familial amyloidosis, Finnish type. Biochem J. 1990 Dec 15;272(3):827-30. PMID:2176481
↑ de la Chapelle A, Tolvanen R, Boysen G, Santavy J, Bleeker-Wagemakers L, Maury CP, Kere J. Gelsolin-derived familial amyloidosis caused by asparagine or tyrosine substitution for aspartic acid at residue 187. Nat Genet. 1992 Oct;2(2):157-60. PMID:1338910 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng1092-157
↑ Kim J, Lee JE, Heynen-Genel S, Suyama E, Ono K, Lee K, Ideker T, Aza-Blanc P, Gleeson JG. Functional genomic screen for modulators of ciliogenesis and cilium length. Nature. 2010 Apr 15;464(7291):1048-51. doi: 10.1038/nature08895. PMID:20393563 doi:10.1038/nature08895