[PPARG_HUMAN] Note=Defects in PPARG can lead to type 2 insulin-resistant diabetes and hyptertension. PPARG mutations may be associated with colon cancer. Defects in PPARG may be associated with susceptibility to obesity (OBESITY) [MIM:601665]. It is a condition characterized by an increase of body weight beyond the limitation of skeletal and physical requirements, as the result of excessive accumulation of body fat. Defects in PPARG are the cause of familial partial lipodystrophy type 3 (FPLD3) [MIM:604367]. Familial partial lipodystrophies (FPLD) are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterized by marked loss of subcutaneous (sc) fat from the extremities. Affected individuals show an increased preponderance of insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. Genetic variations in PPARG can be associated with susceptibility to glioma type 1 (GLM1) [MIM:137800]. Gliomas are central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells and comprise astrocytomas, glioblastoma multiforme, oligodendrogliomas, and ependymomas. Note=Polymorphic PPARG alleles have been found to be significantly over-represented among a cohort of American patients with sporadic glioblastoma multiforme suggesting a possible contribution to disease susceptibility.
[PPARG_HUMAN] Receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the receptor binds to a promoter element in the gene for acyl-CoA oxidase and activates its transcription. It therefore controls the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis. Acts as a critical regulator of gut homeostasis by suppressing NF-kappa-B-mediated proinflammatory responses.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is well-known as the receptor of thiazolidinedione antidiabetic drugs. In this paper, we present a successful example of employing structure-based virtual screening, a method that combines shape-based database search with a docking study and analogue search, to discover a novel family of PPARgamma agonists based upon pyrazol-5-ylbenzenesulfonamide. Two analogues in the family show high affinity for, and specificity to, PPARgamma and act as partial agonists. They also demonstrate glucose-lowering efficacy in vivo. A structural biology study reveals that they both adopt a distinct binding mode and have no H-bonding interactions with PPARgamma. The absence of H-bonding interaction with the protein provides an explanation why both function as partial agonists since most full agonists form conserved H-bonds with the activation function helix (AF-2 helix) which, in turn, enhances the recruitment of coactivators. Moreover, the structural biology and computer docking studies reveal the specificity of the compounds for PPARgamma could be due to the restricted access to the binding pocket of other PPAR subtypes, i.e., PPARalpha and PPARdelta, and steric hindrance upon the ligand binding.
Structure-based drug design of a novel family of PPARgamma partial agonists: virtual screening, X-ray crystallography, and in vitro/in vivo biological activities.,Lu IL, Huang CF, Peng YH, Lin YT, Hsieh HP, Chen CT, Lien TW, Lee HJ, Mahindroo N, Prakash E, Yueh A, Chen HY, Goparaju CM, Chen X, Liao CC, Chao YS, Hsu JT, Wu SY J Med Chem. 2006 May 4;49(9):2703-12. PMID:16640330
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
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↑ Hegele RA, Cao H, Frankowski C, Mathews ST, Leff T. PPARG F388L, a transactivation-deficient mutant, in familial partial lipodystrophy. Diabetes. 2002 Dec;51(12):3586-90. PMID:12453919
↑ Agarwal AK, Garg A. A novel heterozygous mutation in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma gene in a patient with familial partial lipodystrophy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Jan;87(1):408-11. PMID:11788685
↑ Mukherjee R, Jow L, Croston GE, Paterniti JR Jr. Identification, characterization, and tissue distribution of human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isoforms PPARgamma2 versus PPARgamma1 and activation with retinoid X receptor agonists and antagonists. J Biol Chem. 1997 Mar 21;272(12):8071-6. PMID:9065481
↑ Yin Y, Yuan H, Wang C, Pattabiraman N, Rao M, Pestell RG, Glazer RI. 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 activates the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and promotes adipocyte differentiation. Mol Endocrinol. 2006 Feb;20(2):268-78. Epub 2005 Sep 8. PMID:16150867 doi:10.1210/me.2005-0197
↑ Park SH, Choi HJ, Yang H, Do KH, Kim J, Lee DW, Moon Y. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-activated C/EBP homologous protein enhances nuclear factor-kappaB signals via repression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. J Biol Chem. 2010 Nov 12;285(46):35330-9. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.136259. Epub 2010, Sep 9. PMID:20829347 doi:10.1074/jbc.M110.136259
↑ Lu IL, Huang CF, Peng YH, Lin YT, Hsieh HP, Chen CT, Lien TW, Lee HJ, Mahindroo N, Prakash E, Yueh A, Chen HY, Goparaju CM, Chen X, Liao CC, Chao YS, Hsu JT, Wu SY. Structure-based drug design of a novel family of PPARgamma partial agonists: virtual screening, X-ray crystallography, and in vitro/in vivo biological activities. J Med Chem. 2006 May 4;49(9):2703-12. PMID:16640330 doi:10.1021/jm051129s