Crystal structure of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase type1, complexed with NAD+
[PGDH_HUMAN] Defects in HPGD are the cause of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, primary, autosomal recessive, type 1 (PHOAR1) [MIM:259100]. A disease characterized by digital clubbing, periostosis, acroosteolysis, painful joint enlargement, and variable features of pachydermia that include thickened facial skin and a thickened scalp. Other developmental anomalies include delayed closure of the cranial sutures and congenital heart disease. Defects in HPGD are the cause of cranioosteoarthropathy (COA) [MIM:259100]. A form of osterarthropathy characterized by swelling of the joints, digital clubbing, hyperhidrosis, delayed closure of the fontanels, periostosis, and variable patent ductus arteriosus. Pachydermia is not a prominent feature. Defects in HPGD are a cause of isolated congenital nail clubbing (ICNC) [MIM:119900]; also called clubbing of digits or hereditary acropachy. ICNC is a rare genodermatosis characterized by enlargement of the nail plate and terminal segments of the fingers and toes, resulting from proliferation of the connective tissues between the nail matrix and the distal phalanx. It is usually symmetrical and bilateral (in some cases unilateral). In nail clubbing usually the distal end of the nail matrix is relatively high compared to the proximal end, while the nail plate is complete but its dimensions and diameter more or less vary in comparison to normal. There may be different fingers and toes involved to varying degrees. Some fingers or toes are spared, but the thumbs are almost always involved.
[PGDH_HUMAN] Prostaglandin inactivation. Contributes to the regulation of events that are under the control of prostaglandin levels. Catalyzes the NAD-dependent dehydrogenation of lipoxin A4 to form 15-oxo-lipoxin A4. Inhibits in vivo proliferation of colon cancer cells.  
Publication Abstract from PubMed
BACKGROUND: 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH, EC 184.108.40.206) is the key enzyme for the inactivation of prostaglandins, regulating processes such as inflammation or proliferation. The anabolic pathways of prostaglandins, especially with respect to regulation of the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes have been studied in detail; however, little is known about downstream events including functional interaction of prostaglandin-processing and -metabolizing enzymes. High-affinity probes for 15-PGDH will, therefore, represent important tools for further studies. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify novel high-affinity inhibitors of 15-PGDH we performed a quantitative high-throughput screen (qHTS) by testing >160 thousand compounds in a concentration-response format and identified compounds that act as noncompetitive inhibitors as well as a competitive inhibitor, with nanomolar affinity. Both types of inhibitors caused strong thermal stabilization of the enzyme, with cofactor dependencies correlating with their mechanism of action. We solved the structure of human 15-PGDH and explored the binding modes of the inhibitors to the enzyme in silico. We found binding modes that are consistent with the observed mechanisms of action. CONCLUSIONS: Low cross-reactivity in screens of over 320 targets, including three other human dehydrogenases/reductases, suggest selectivity of the present inhibitors for 15-PGDH. The high potencies and different mechanisms of action of these chemotypes make them a useful set of complementary chemical probes for functional studies of prostaglandin-signaling pathways. ENHANCED VERSION: This article can also be viewed as an enhanced version in which the text of the article is integrated with interactive 3D representations and animated transitions. Please note that a web plugin is required to access this enhanced functionality. Instructions for the installation and use of the web plugin are available in Text S2.
High-Affinity Inhibitors of Human NAD-Dependent 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenase: Mechanisms of Inhibition and Structure-Activity Relationships.,Niesen FH, Schultz L, Jadhav A, Bhatia C, Guo K, Maloney DJ, Pilka ES, Wang M, Oppermann U, Heightman TD, Simeonov A PLoS One. 2010 Nov 2;5(11):e13719. PMID:21072165
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