[HEXA_HUMAN] Defects in HEXA are the cause of GM2-gangliosidosis type 1 (GM2G1) [MIM:272800]; also known as Tay-Sachs disease. GM2-gangliosidosis is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease marked by the accumulation of GM2 gangliosides in the neuronal cells. GM2G1 is characterized by GM2 gangliosides accumulation in the absence of HEXA activity, leading to neurodegeneration and, in the infantile form, death in early childhood. GM2G1 has an increased incidence among Ashkenazi Jews and French Canadians in eastern Quebec. It exists in several forms: infantile (most common and most severe), juvenile and adult (late onset). [HEXB_HUMAN] Defects in HEXB are the cause of GM2-gangliosidosis type 2 (GM2G2) [MIM:268800]; also known as Sandhoff disease. GM2-gangliosidosis is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease marked by the accumulation of GM2 gangliosides in the neuronal cells. GM2G2 is clinically indistinguishable from GM2-gangliosidosis type 1, presenting startle reactions, early blindness, progressive motor and mental deterioration, macrocephaly and cherry-red spots on the macula.
[HEXA_HUMAN] Responsible for the degradation of GM2 gangliosides, and a variety of other molecules containing terminal N-acetyl hexosamines, in the brain and other tissues. The form B is active against certain oligosaccharides. The form S has no measurable activity. [HEXB_HUMAN] Responsible for the degradation of GM2 gangliosides, and a variety of other molecules containing terminal N-acetyl hexosamines, in the brain and other tissues.
Lysosomal beta-hexosaminidase A (Hex A) is essential for the degradation of GM2 gangliosides in the central and peripheral nervous system. Accumulation of GM2 leads to severely debilitating neurodegeneration associated with Tay-Sachs disease (TSD), Sandoff disease (SD) and AB variant. Here, we present the X-ray crystallographic structure of Hex A to 2.8 A resolution and the structure of Hex A in complex with NAG-thiazoline, (NGT) to 3.25 A resolution. NGT, a mechanism-based inhibitor, has been shown to act as a chemical chaperone that, to some extent, prevents misfolding of a Hex A mutant associated with adult onset Tay Sachs disease and, as a result, increases the residual activity of Hex A to a level above the critical threshold for disease. The crystal structure of Hex A reveals an alphabeta heterodimer, with each subunit having a functional active site. Only the alpha-subunit active site can hydrolyze GM2 gangliosides due to a flexible loop structure that is removed post-translationally from beta, and to the presence of alphaAsn423 and alphaArg424. The loop structure is involved in binding the GM2 activator protein, while alphaArg424 is critical for binding the carboxylate group of the N-acetyl-neuraminic acid residue of GM2. The beta-subunit lacks these key residues and has betaAsp452 and betaLeu453 in their place; the beta-subunit therefore cleaves only neutral substrates efficiently. Mutations in the alpha-subunit, associated with TSD, and those in the beta-subunit, associated with SD are discussed. The effect of NGT binding in the active site of a mutant Hex A and its effect on protein function is discussed.
Crystallographic structure of human beta-hexosaminidase A: interpretation of Tay-Sachs mutations and loss of GM2 ganglioside hydrolysis.,Lemieux MJ, Mark BL, Cherney MM, Withers SG, Mahuran DJ, James MN J Mol Biol. 2006 Jun 16;359(4):913-29. Epub 2006 Apr 27. PMID:16698036
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
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↑ Lemieux MJ, Mark BL, Cherney MM, Withers SG, Mahuran DJ, James MN. Crystallographic structure of human beta-hexosaminidase A: interpretation of Tay-Sachs mutations and loss of GM2 ganglioside hydrolysis. J Mol Biol. 2006 Jun 16;359(4):913-29. Epub 2006 Apr 27. PMID:16698036 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2006.04.004