Discovery of Potent, Highly Selective, and Orally Bioavailable Pyridine Carboxamide C-jun NH2-terminal Kinase Inhibitors
[JIP1_HUMAN] Defects in MAPK8IP1 are a cause of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) [MIM:125853]. NIDDM is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset during adulthood and insulin resistance.
[MK08_HUMAN] Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, transformation and programmed cell death. Extracellular stimuli such as proinflammatory cytokines or physical stress stimulate the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAP/JNK) signaling pathway. In this cascade, two dual specificity kinases MAP2K4/MKK4 and MAP2K7/MKK7 phosphorylate and activate MAPK8/JNK1. In turn, MAPK8/JNK1 phosphorylates a number of transcription factors, primarily components of AP-1 such as JUN, JDP2 and ATF2 and thus regulates AP-1 transcriptional activity. Phosphorylates the replication licensing factor CDT1, inhibiting the interaction between CDT1 and the histone H4 acetylase HBO1 to replication origins. Loss of this interaction abrogates the acetylation required for replication initiation. Promotes stressed cell apoptosis by phosphorylating key regulatory factors including p53/TP53 and Yes-associates protein YAP1. In T-cells, MAPK8 and MAPK9 are required for polarized differentiation of T-helper cells into Th1 cells. Contributes to the survival of erythroid cells by phosphorylating the antagonist of cell death BAD upon EPO stimulation. Mediates starvation-induced BCL2 phosphorylation, BCL2 dissociation from BECN1, and thus activation of autophagy. Phosphorylates STMN2 and hence regulates microtubule dynamics, controlling neurite elongation in cortical neurons. In the developing brain, through its cytoplasmic activity on STMN2, negatively regulates the rate of exit from multipolar stage and of radial migration from the ventricular zone. Phosphorylates several other substrates including heat shock factor protein 4 (HSF4), the deacetylase SIRT1, ELK1, or the E3 ligase ITCH.        JNK1 isoforms display different binding patterns: beta-1 preferentially binds to c-Jun, whereas alpha-1, alpha-2, and beta-2 have a similar low level of binding to both c-Jun or ATF2. However, there is no correlation between binding and phosphorylation, which is achieved at about the same efficiency by all isoforms.        [JIP1_HUMAN] The JNK-interacting protein (JIP) group of scaffold proteins selectively mediates JNK signaling by aggregating specific components of the MAPK cascade to form a functional JNK signaling module. Required for JNK activation in response to excitotoxic stress. Cytoplasmic MAPK8IP1 causes inhibition of JNK-regulated activity by retaining JNK in the cytoplasm and inhibiting JNK phosphorylation of c-Jun. May also participate in ApoER2-specific reelin signaling. Directly, or indirectly, regulates GLUT2 gene expression and beta-cell function. Appears to have a role in cell signaling in mature and developing nerve terminals. May function as a regulator of vesicle transport, through interactions with the JNK-signaling components and motor proteins (By similarity). Functions as an anti-apoptotic protein and whose level seems to influence the beta-cell death or survival response.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
C-Jun NH2 terminal kinases (JNKs) are important cell signaling enzymes. JNK1 plays a central role in linking obesity and insulin resistance. JNK2 and JNK3 may be involved in inflammatory and neurological disorders, respectively. Small-molecule JNK inhibitors could be valuable tools to study the therapeutic benefits of inhibiting these enzymes and as leads for potential drugs targeting JNKs. In this report, we disclose a series of potent and highly selective JNK inhibitors with good pharmacokinetic profiles.
Discovery of potent, highly selective, and orally bioavailable pyridine carboxamide c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase inhibitors.,Zhao H, Serby MD, Xin Z, Szczepankiewicz BG, Liu M, Kosogof C, Liu B, Nelson LT, Johnson EF, Wang S, Pederson T, Gum RJ, Clampit JE, Haasch DL, Abad-Zapatero C, Fry EH, Rondinone C, Trevillyan JM, Sham HL, Liu G J Med Chem. 2006 Jul 27;49(15):4455-8. PMID:16854050
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.