NMR structure of human insulin mutant GLY-B8-D-SER, HIS-B10-ASP PRO-B28-LYS, LYS-B29-PRO, 20 structures
[INS_HUMAN] Defects in INS are the cause of familial hyperproinsulinemia (FHPRI) [MIM:176730].    Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent type 2 (IDDM2) [MIM:125852]. IDDM2 is a multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical fetaures are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus permanent neonatal (PNDM) [MIM:606176]. PNDM is a rare form of diabetes distinct from childhood-onset autoimmune diabetes mellitus type 1. It is characterized by insulin-requiring hyperglycemia that is diagnosed within the first months of life. Permanent neonatal diabetes requires lifelong therapy.  Defects in INS are a cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 10 (MODY10) [MIM:613370]. MODY10 is a form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early adulthood (usually before 25 years of age), a primary defect in insulin secretion and frequent insulin-independence at the beginning of the disease.  
[INS_HUMAN] Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
How insulin binds to the insulin receptor has long been a subject of speculation. Although the structure of the free hormone has been extensively characterized, a variety of evidence suggests that a conformational change occurs upon receptor binding. Here, we employ chiral mutagenesis, comparison of corresponding d and l amino acid substitutions, to investigate a possible switch in the B-chain. To investigate the interrelation of structure, function, and stability, isomeric analogs have been synthesized in which an invariant glycine in a beta-turn (Gly(B8)) is replaced by d- or l-Ser. The d substitution enhances stability (DeltaDeltaG(u) 0.9 kcal/mol) but impairs receptor binding by 100-fold; by contrast, the l substitution markedly impairs stability (DeltaDeltaG(u) -3.0 kcal/mol) with only 2-fold reduction in receptor binding. Although the isomeric structures each retain a native-like overall fold, the l-Ser(B8) analog exhibits fewer helix-related and long range nuclear Overhauser effects than does the d-Ser(B8) analog or native monomer. Evidence for enhanced conformational fluctuations in the unstable analog is provided by its attenuated CD spectrum. The inverse relationship between stereospecific stabilization and receptor binding strongly suggests that the B7-B10 beta-turn changes conformation on receptor binding.
Toward the active conformation of insulin: stereospecific modulation of a structural switch in the B chain.,Hua QX, Nakagawa S, Hu SQ, Jia W, Wang S, Weiss MA J Biol Chem. 2006 Aug 25;281(34):24900-9. Epub 2006 Jun 8. PMID:16762918
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.