[THRB_HUMAN] Defects in F2 are the cause of factor II deficiency (FA2D) [MIM:613679]. It is a very rare blood coagulation disorder characterized by mucocutaneous bleeding symptoms. The severity of the bleeding manifestations correlates with blood factor II levels. Genetic variations in F2 may be a cause of susceptibility to ischemic stroke (ISCHSTR) [MIM:601367]; also known as cerebrovascular accident or cerebral infarction. A stroke is an acute neurologic event leading to death of neural tissue of the brain and resulting in loss of motor, sensory and/or cognitive function. Ischemic strokes, resulting from vascular occlusion, is considered to be a highly complex disease consisting of a group of heterogeneous disorders with multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. Defects in F2 are the cause of thrombophilia due to thrombin defect (THPH1) [MIM:188050]. It is a multifactorial disorder of hemostasis characterized by abnormal platelet aggregation in response to various agents and recurrent thrombi formation. Note=A common genetic variation in the 3-prime untranslated region of the prothrombin gene is associated with elevated plasma prothrombin levels and an increased risk of venous thrombosis. Defects in F2 are associated with susceptibility to pregnancy loss, recurrent, type 2 (RPRGL2) [MIM:614390]. A common complication of pregnancy, resulting in spontaneous abortion before the fetus has reached viability. The term includes all miscarriages from the time of conception until 24 weeks of gestation. Recurrent pregnancy loss is defined as 3 or more consecutive spontaneous abortions. [FIBG_HUMAN] Defects in FGG are a cause of congenital afibrinogenemia (CAFBN) [MIM:202400]. This rare autosomal recessive disorder is characterized by bleeding that varies from mild to severe and by complete absence or extremely low levels of plasma and platelet fibrinogen. Note=Patients with congenital fibrinogen abnormalities can manifest different clinical pictures. Some cases are clinically silent, some show a tendency toward bleeding and some show a predisposition for thrombosis with or without bleeding.
[THRB_HUMAN] Thrombin, which cleaves bonds after Arg and Lys, converts fibrinogen to fibrin and activates factors V, VII, VIII, XIII, and, in complex with thrombomodulin, protein C. Functions in blood homeostasis, inflammation and wound healing. [FIBG_HUMAN] Fibrinogen has a double function: yielding monomers that polymerize into fibrin and acting as a cofactor in platelet aggregation.
Elevated levels of heterodimeric gamma(A)/gamma' fibrinogen 2 have been associated with an increased incidence of coronary artery disease, whereas a lowered content of gamma' chains is associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis. Both situations may be related to the unique features of thrombin binding to variant gamma' chains. The gamma' peptide is an anionic fragment that binds thrombin with high affinity without interfering directly with substrate binding. Here we report the crystal structure of thrombin bound to the gamma' peptide, solved at 2.4 A resolution. The complex reveals extensive interactions between thrombin and the gamma' peptide mediated by electrostatic contacts with residues of exosite II and hydrophobic interactions with a pocket in close proximity to the Na(+) binding site. In its binding mode, the gamma' peptide completely overlaps with heparin bound to exosite II. These findings are consistent with functional data and broaden our understanding of how thrombin interacts with fibrinogen at the molecular level.
Crystal structure of thrombin in complex with fibrinogen gamma' peptide.,Pineda AO, Chen ZW, Marino F, Mathews FS, Mosesson MW, Di Cera E Biophys Chem. 2007 Feb;125(2-3):556-9. Epub 2006 Aug 23. PMID:16962697
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
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