STRUCTURE OF PKB-BETA (AKT2) COMPLEXED WITH THE INHIBITOR A-443654
[GSK3B_HUMAN] Constitutively active protein kinase that acts as a negative regulator in the hormonal control of glucose homeostasis, Wnt signaling and regulation of transcription factors and microtubules, by phosphorylating and inactivating glycogen synthase (GYS1 or GYS2), EIF2B, CTNNB1/beta-catenin, APC, AXIN1, DPYSL2/CRMP2, JUN, NFATC1/NFATC, MAPT/TAU and MACF1. Requires primed phosphorylation of the majority of its substrates. In skeletal muscle, contributes to insulin regulation of glycogen synthesis by phosphorylating and inhibiting GYS1 activity and hence glycogen synthesis. May also mediate the development of insulin resistance by regulating activation of transcription factors. Regulates protein synthesis by controlling the activity of initiation factor 2B (EIF2BE/EIF2B5) in the same manner as glycogen synthase. In Wnt signaling, GSK3B forms a multimeric complex with APC, AXIN1 and CTNNB1/beta-catenin and phosphorylates the N-terminus of CTNNB1 leading to its degradation mediated by ubiquitin/proteasomes. Phosphorylates JUN at sites proximal to its DNA-binding domain, thereby reducing its affinity for DNA. Phosphorylates NFATC1/NFATC on conserved serine residues promoting NFATC1/NFATC nuclear export, shutting off NFATC1/NFATC gene regulation, and thereby opposing the action of calcineurin. Phosphorylates MAPT/TAU on 'Thr-548', decreasing significantly MAPT/TAU ability to bind and stabilize microtubules. MAPT/TAU is the principal component of neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer disease. Plays an important role in ERBB2-dependent stabilization of microtubules at the cell cortex. Phosphorylates MACF1, inhibiting its binding to microtubules which is critical for its role in bulge stem cell migration and skin wound repair. Probably regulates NF-kappa-B (NFKB1) at the transcriptional level and is required for the NF-kappa-B-mediated anti-apoptotic response to TNF-alpha (TNF/TNFA). Negatively regulates replication in pancreatic beta-cells, resulting in apoptosis, loss of beta-cells and diabetes. Phosphorylates MUC1 in breast cancer cells, decreasing the interaction of MUC1 with CTNNB1/beta-catenin. Is necessary for the establishment of neuronal polarity and axon outgrowth. Phosphorylates MARK2, leading to inhibit its activity. Phosphorylates SIK1 at 'Thr-182', leading to sustain its activity. Phosphorylates ZC3HAV1 which enhances its antiviral activity. Phosphorylates SFPQ at 'Thr-687' upon T-cell activation.           
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Although the crystal structure of the anti-cancer target protein kinase B (PKBbeta/Akt-2) has been useful in guiding inhibitor design, the closely related kinase PKA has generally been used as a structural mimic due to its facile crystallization with a range of ligands. The use of PKB-inhibitor crystallography would bring important benefits, including a more rigorous understanding of factors dictating PKA/PKB selectivity, and the opportunity to validate the utility of PKA-based surrogates. We present a "back-soaking" method for obtaining PKBbeta-ligand crystal structures, and provide a structural comparison of inhibitor binding to PKB, PKA, and PKA-PKB chimera. One inhibitor presented here exhibits no PKB/PKA selectivity, and the compound adopts a similar binding mode in all three systems. By contrast, the PKB-selective inhibitor A-443654 adopts a conformation in PKB and PKA-PKB that differs from that with PKA. We provide a structural explanation for this difference, and highlight the ability of PKA-PKB to mimic the true PKB binding mode in this case.
A structural comparison of inhibitor binding to PKB, PKA and PKA-PKB chimera.,Davies TG, Verdonk ML, Graham B, Saalau-Bethell S, Hamlett CC, McHardy T, Collins I, Garrett MD, Workman P, Woodhead SJ, Jhoti H, Barford D J Mol Biol. 2007 Mar 30;367(3):882-94. Epub 2007 Jan 9. PMID:17275837
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.