[INS_HUMAN] Defects in INS are the cause of familial hyperproinsulinemia (FHPRI) [MIM:176730].    Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent type 2 (IDDM2) [MIM:125852]. IDDM2 is a multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical fetaures are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus permanent neonatal (PNDM) [MIM:606176]. PNDM is a rare form of diabetes distinct from childhood-onset autoimmune diabetes mellitus type 1. It is characterized by insulin-requiring hyperglycemia that is diagnosed within the first months of life. Permanent neonatal diabetes requires lifelong therapy.  Defects in INS are a cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 10 (MODY10) [MIM:613370]. MODY10 is a form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early adulthood (usually before 25 years of age), a primary defect in insulin secretion and frequent insulin-independence at the beginning of the disease.  
[INS_HUMAN] Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The contribution of the insulin A-chain to receptor binding is investigated by photo-cross-linking and nonstandard mutagenesis. Studies focus on the role of Val(A3), which projects within a crevice between the A- and B-chains. Engineered receptor alpha-subunits containing specific protease sites ("midi-receptors") are employed to map the site of photo-cross-linking by an analog containing a photoactivable A3 side chain (para-azido-Phe (Pap)). The probe cross-links to a C-terminal peptide (residues 703-719 of the receptor A isoform, KTFEDYLHNVVFVPRPS) containing side chains critical for hormone binding (underlined); the corresponding segment of the holoreceptor was shown previously to cross-link to a Pap(B25)-insulin analog. Because Pap is larger than Val and so may protrude beyond the A3-associated crevice, we investigated analogs containing A3 substitutions comparable in size to Val as follows: Thr, allo-Thr, and alpha-aminobutyric acid (Aba). Substitutions were introduced within an engineered monomer. Whereas previous studies of smaller substitutions (Gly(A3) and Ser(A3)) encountered nonlocal conformational perturbations, NMR structures of the present analogs are similar to wild-type insulin; the variant side chains are accommodated within a native-like crevice with minimal distortion. Receptor binding activities of Aba(A3) and allo-Thr(A3) analogs are reduced at least 10-fold; the activity of Thr(A3)-DKP-insulin is reduced 5-fold. The hormone-receptor interface is presumably destabilized either by a packing defect (Aba(A3)) or by altered polarity (allo-Thr(A3) and Thr(A3)). Our results provide evidence that Val(A3), a site of mutation causing diabetes mellitus, contacts the insert domain-derived tail of the alpha-subunit in a hormone-receptor complex.
The A-chain of insulin contacts the insert domain of the insulin receptor. Photo-cross-linking and mutagenesis of a diabetes-related crevice.,Huang K, Chan SJ, Hua QX, Chu YC, Wang RY, Klaproth B, Jia W, Whittaker J, De Meyts P, Nakagawa SH, Steiner DF, Katsoyannis PG, Weiss MA J Biol Chem. 2007 Nov 30;282(48):35337-49. Epub 2007 Sep 20. PMID:17884811
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.