Solution structure and functional characterization of human plasminogen kringle 5
[PLMN_HUMAN] Defects in PLG are the cause of plasminogen deficiency (PLGD) [MIM:217090]. PLGD is characterized by decreased serum plasminogen activity. Two forms of the disorder are distinguished: type 1 deficiency is additionally characterized by decreased plasminogen antigen levels and clinical symptoms, whereas type 2 deficiency, also known as dysplasminogenemia, is characterized by normal, or slightly reduced antigen levels, and absence of clinical manifestations. Plasminogen deficiency type 1 results in markedly impaired extracellular fibrinolysis and chronic mucosal pseudomembranous lesions due to subepithelial fibrin deposition and inflammation. The most common clinical manifestation of type 1 deficiency is ligneous conjunctivitis in which pseudomembranes formation on the palpebral surfaces of the eye progresses to white, yellow-white, or red thick masses with a wood-like consistency that replace the normal mucosa.       
[PLMN_HUMAN] Plasmin dissolves the fibrin of blood clots and acts as a proteolytic factor in a variety of other processes including embryonic development, tissue remodeling, tumor invasion, and inflammation. In ovulation, weakens the walls of the Graafian follicle. It activates the urokinase-type plasminogen activator, collagenases and several complement zymogens, such as C1 and C5. Cleavage of fibronectin and laminin leads to cell detachment and apoptosis. Also cleaves fibrin, thrombospondin and von Willebrand factor. Its role in tissue remodeling and tumor invasion may be modulated by CSPG4. Binds to cells. Angiostatin is an angiogenesis inhibitor that blocks neovascularization and growth of experimental primary and metastatic tumors in vivo.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The ligand binding properties of the kringle 5 (K5) domain of human plasminogen have been investigated via intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. The oleic acid (OA) affinity for K5 was quantified, yielding an association constant K(a) approximately 2.08 x 10(4) mM(-1). Simultaneously, it was determined that OA and trans-4-(aminomethyl)cyclohexanecarboxylic acid (AMCHA) (K(a) approximately 50 mM(-1)) compete for binding to K5. The solution structure of K5 in the presence of 11 mM AMCHA was solved via NMR spectroscopy (protein heavy atom RMSD approximately 0.93 +/- 0.12 A). The AMCHA binding site was localized via (1)H/(15)N chemical shift perturbation mapping assisted by in silico docking. We have found that AMCHA binds at the canonical kringle lysine binding site (LBS), structured by the Pro54-Gly60 segment plus the neighboring Phe36, Thr37, Trp62, Leu71, and Tyr72 residues. The segment 30-42, encompassing LBS residues, appears to be endowed with a higher degree of structural flexibility as suggested by the relatively lower value of S(2), the generalized order parameter, consistent with a higher backbone heavy atom RMSD of approximately 1.22 A (vs 0.84 A overall) between the two monomeric units in the crystal unit cell, of potential significance for ligand binding. OA was found to perturb the same area of the protein, namely, the LBS, as well as Tyr74. Combined with previous studies, the observation of OA binding expands the range of ligands that interact with kringle 5 while it widens the scope of potential biological functions for kringle domains.
Solution Structure and Functional Characterization of Human Plasminogen Kringle 5 (,).,Battistel MD, Grishaev A, An SS, Castellino FJ, Llinas M Biochemistry. 2009 Nov 3;48(43):10208-10219. PMID:19821587
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.