Phosphorylation of SUMO-interacting motif by CK2 enhances Daxx SUMO binding activity
[SUMO1_HUMAN] Defects in SUMO1 are the cause of non-syndromic orofacial cleft type 10 (OFC10) [MIM:613705]; also called non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate 10. OFC10 is a birth defect consisting of cleft lips with or without cleft palate. Cleft lips are associated with cleft palate in two-third of cases. A cleft lip can occur on one or both sides and range in severity from a simple notch in the upper lip to a complete opening in the lip extending into the floor of the nostril and involving the upper gum. Note=A chromosomal aberation involving SUMO1 is the cause of OFC10. Translocation t(2;8)(q33.1;q24.3). The breakpoint occurred in the SUMO1 gene and resulted in haploinsufficiency confirmed by protein assays.
[SUMO1_HUMAN] Ubiquitin-like protein that can be covalently attached to proteins as a monomer or a lysine-linked polymer. Covalent attachment via an isopeptide bond to its substrates requires prior activation by the E1 complex SAE1-SAE2 and linkage to the E2 enzyme UBE2I, and can be promoted by E3 ligases such as PIAS1-4, RANBP2 or CBX4. This post-translational modification on lysine residues of proteins plays a crucial role in a number of cellular processes such as nuclear transport, DNA replication and repair, mitosis and signal transduction. Involved for instance in targeting RANGAP1 to the nuclear pore complex protein RANBP2. Polymeric SUMO1 chains are also susceptible to polyubiquitination which functions as a signal for proteasomal degradation of modified proteins. May also regulate a network of genes involved in palate development.    [DAXX_HUMAN] Transcription corepressor known to repress transcriptional potential of several sumoylated transcription factors. Acts as an adapter protein in a MDM2-DAXX-USP7 complex by regulating the RING-finger E3 ligase MDM2 ubiquitination activity. Under non-stress condition, in association with the deubiquitinating USP7, prevents MDM2 self-ubiquitination and enhances the intrinsic E3 ligase activity of MDM2 towards TP53, thereby promoting TP53 ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation. Upon DNA damage, its association with MDM2 and USP7 is disrupted, resulting in increased MDM2 autoubiquitination and consequently, MDM2 degradation, which leads to TP53 stabilization. Proposed to mediate activation of the JNK pathway and apoptosis via MAP3K5 in response to signaling from TNFRSF6 and TGFBR2. Interaction with HSPB1/HSP27 may prevent interaction with TNFRSF6 and MAP3K5 and block DAXX-mediated apoptosis. In contrast, in lymphoid cells JNC activation and TNFRSF6-mediated apoptosis may not involve DAXX. Seems to regulate transcription in PML/POD/ND10 nuclear bodies together with PML and may influence TNFRSF6-dependent apoptosis thereby. Down-regulates basal and activated transcription. Seems to act as a transcriptional corepressor and inhibits PAX3 and ETS1 through direct protein-protein interaction. Modulates PAX5 activity. Its transcription repressor activity is modulated by recruiting it to subnuclear compartments like the nucleolus or PML/POD/ND10 nuclear bodies through interactions with MCSR1 and PML, respectively.   
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) conjugation and interaction are increasingly associated with various cellular processes. However, little is known about the cellular signaling mechanisms that regulate proteins for distinct SUMO paralog conjugation and interactions. Using the transcriptional coregulator Daxx as a model, we show that SUMO paralog-selective binding and conjugation are regulated by phosphorylation of the Daxx SUMO-interacting motif (SIM). NMR structural studies show that Daxx (732)E-I-I-V-L-S-D-S-D(740) is a bona fide SIM that binds to SUMO-1 in a parallel orientation. Daxx-SIM is phosphorylated by CK2 kinase at residues S737 and S739. Phosphorylation promotes Daxx-SIM binding affinity toward SUMO-1 over SUMO-2/3, causing Daxx preference for SUMO-1 conjugation and interaction with SUMO-1-modified factors. Furthermore, Daxx-SIM phosphorylation enhances Daxx to sensitize stress-induced cell apoptosis via antiapoptotic gene repression. Our findings provide structural insights into the Daxx-SIM:SUMO-1 complex, a model of SIM phosphorylation-enhanced SUMO paralog-selective modification and interaction, and phosphorylation-regulated Daxx function in apoptosis.
Structural and functional roles of Daxx SIM phosphorylation in SUMO paralog-selective binding and apoptosis modulation.,Chang CC, Naik MT, Huang YS, Jeng JC, Liao PH, Kuo HY, Ho CC, Hsieh YL, Lin CH, Huang NJ, Naik NM, Kung CC, Lin SY, Chen RH, Chang KS, Huang TH, Shih HM Mol Cell. 2011 Apr 8;42(1):62-74. PMID:21474068
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.