|2ky5, 20 NMR models ()|
|Gene:||PECAM-1, PECAM1 (Homo sapiens)|
Solution structure of the PECAM-1 cytoplasmic tail with DPC
Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM)-containing receptors inhibit cellular responsiveness to immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-linked receptors. Though tyrosine phosphorylation is central to the initiation of both inhibitory ITIM and stimulatory ITAM signaling, the events that regulate receptor phosphorylation are incompletely understood. Previous studies have shown that ITAM tyrosines engage in structure-inducing interactions with the plasma membrane that must be relieved for phosphorylation to occur. Whether ITIM phosphorylation is similarly regulated, and the mechanisms responsible for release from plasma membrane interactions to enable phosphorylation, however, have not been defined. PECAM-1 is a dual ITIM-containing receptor that inhibits ITAM-dependent responses in hematopoietic cells. We found that the PECAM-1 cytoplasmic domain is unstructured in an aqueous environment, but adopts an alpha-helical conformation within a localized region upon interaction with lipid vesicles that mimic the plasma membrane. The lipid-interacting segment contains the C-terminal ITIM tyrosine and a serine residue that undergo activation-dependent phosphorylation. The N-terminal ITIM is excluded from the lipid-interacting segment, and its phosphorylation is secondary to phosphorylation of the membrane-interacting C-terminal ITIM. Based upon these findings, we propose a novel model for regulation of inhibitory signaling by ITIM-containing receptors that relies on reversible plasma membrane interactions and sequential ITIM phosphorylation.
Residues within a lipid-associated segment of the PECAM-1 cytoplasmic domain are susceptible to inducible, sequential phosphorylation., Paddock C, Lytle BL, Peterson FC, Holyst T, Newman PJ, Volkman BF, Newman DK, Blood. 2011 Apr 4. PMID:21464369
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
[PECA1_HUMAN] Induces susceptibility to atherosclerosis (By similarity). Cell adhesion molecule which is required for leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) under most inflammatory conditions. Tyr-690 plays a critical role in TEM and is required for efficient trafficking of PECAM1 to and from the lateral border recycling compartment (LBRC) and is also essential for the LBRC membrane to be targeted around migrating leukocytes. Prevents phagocyte ingestion of closely apposed viable cells by transmitting 'detachment' signals, and changes function on apoptosis, promoting tethering of dying cells to phagocytes (the encounter of a viable cell with a phagocyte via the homophilic interaction of PECAM1 on both cell surfaces leads to the viable cell's active repulsion from the phagocyte. During apoptosis, the inside-out signaling of PECAM1 is somehow disabled so that the apoptotic cell does not actively reject the phagocyte anymore. The lack of this repulsion signal together with the interaction of the eat-me signals and their respective receptors causes the attachment of the apoptotic cell to the phagocyte, thus triggering the process of engulfment). Isoform Delta15 is unable to protect against apoptosis. Modulates BDKRB2 activation. Regulates bradykinin- and hyperosmotic shock-induced ERK1/2 activation in human umbilical cord vein cells (HUVEC).  
About this Structure
- Paddock C, Lytle BL, Peterson FC, Holyst T, Newman PJ, Volkman BF, Newman DK. Residues within a lipid-associated segment of the PECAM-1 cytoplasmic domain are susceptible to inducible, sequential phosphorylation. Blood. 2011 Apr 4. PMID:21464369 doi:10.1182/blood-2010-11-317867
- ↑ Brown S, Heinisch I, Ross E, Shaw K, Buckley CD, Savill J. Apoptosis disables CD31-mediated cell detachment from phagocytes promoting binding and engulfment. Nature. 2002 Jul 11;418(6894):200-3. PMID:12110892 doi:10.1038/nature00811
- ↑ Bergom C, Paddock C, Gao C, Holyst T, Newman DK, Newman PJ. An alternatively spliced isoform of PECAM-1 is expressed at high levels in human and murine tissues, and suggests a novel role for the C-terminus of PECAM-1 in cytoprotective signaling. J Cell Sci. 2008 Apr 15;121(Pt 8):1235-42. doi: 10.1242/jcs.025163. PMID:18388311 doi:10.1242/jcs.025163
- ↑ Dasgupta B, Dufour E, Mamdouh Z, Muller WA. A novel and critical role for tyrosine 663 in platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 trafficking and transendothelial migration. J Immunol. 2009 Apr 15;182(8):5041-51. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.0803192. PMID:19342684 doi:10.4049/jimmunol.0803192