Structure of BST-2/Tetherin Transmembrane Domain
[BST2_HUMAN] IFN-induced antiviral host restriction factor which efficiently blocks the release of diverse mammalian enveloped viruses by directly tethering nascent virions to the membranes of infected cells. Acts as a direct physical tether, holding virions to the cell membrane and linking virions to each other. The tethered virions can be internalized by endocytosis and subsequently degraded or they can remain on the cell surface. In either case, their spread as cell-free virions is restricted. Its target viruses belong to diverse families, including retroviridae: human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2), simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), prototype foamy virus (PFV), Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV), human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) and murine leukemia virus (MLV), flavivirideae: hepatitis C virus (HCV), filoviridae: ebola virus (EBOV) and marburg virus (MARV), arenaviridae: lassa virus (LASV) and machupo virus (MACV), herpesviridae: kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), rhabdoviridae: vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), orthomyxoviridae: influenza A virus, and paramyxoviridae: nipah virus. Can inhibit cell surface proteolytic activity of MMP14 causing decreased activation of MMP15 which results in inhibition of cell growth and migration. Can stimulate signaling by LILRA4/ILT7 and consequently provide negative feedback to the production of IFN by plasmacytoid dendritic cells in response to viral infection. Plays a role in the organization of the subapical actin cytoskeleton in polarized epithelial cells.              
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The Vpu protein of HIV-1 antagonizes BST-2 (tetherin), a broad spectrum effector of the innate immune response to viral infection, by an intermolecular interaction that maps genetically to the alpha-helical transmembrane domains (TMDs) of each protein. Here we utilize NMR spectroscopy to describe key features of the helix-helix pairing that underlies this interaction. The antagonism of BST-2 involves a sequence of three alanines and a tryptophan spaced at four residue intervals within the Vpu TMD helix. Responsiveness to Vpu involves bulky hydrophobic residues in the C-terminal region of the BST-2 TMD helix that likely fit between the alanines on the interactive face of Vpu. These aspects of Vpu and BST-2 form an anti-parallel, lipid-embedded helix-helix interface. Changes in human BST-2 that mimic sequences found in nonhuman primate orthologs unresponsive to Vpu change the tilt angle of the TMD in the lipid bilayer without abrogating its intrinsic ability to interact with Vpu. These data explain the mechanism by which HIV-1 evades a key aspect of innate immunity and the species specificity of Vpu using an anti-parallel helix-helix packing model.
HIV-1 Vpu Protein Antagonizes Innate Restriction Factor BST-2 via Lipid-embedded Helix-Helix Interactions.,Skasko M, Wang Y, Tian Y, Tokarev A, Munguia J, Ruiz A, Stephens EB, Opella SJ, Guatelli J J Biol Chem. 2012 Jan 2;287(1):58-67. Epub 2011 Nov 9. PMID:22072710
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.