[CCL2_HUMAN] Chemotactic factor that attracts monocytes and basophils but not neutrophils or eosinophils. Augments monocyte anti-tumor activity. Has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diseases characterized by monocytic infiltrates, like psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis or atherosclerosis. May be involved in the recruitment of monocytes into the arterial wall during the disease process of atherosclerosis.
Viruses have evolved a myriad of evasion strategies focused on undermining chemokine-mediated immune surveillance, exemplified by the mouse gamma-herpesvirus 68 M3 decoy receptor. Crystal structures of M3 in complex with C chemokine ligand 1/lymphotactin and CC chemokine ligand 2/monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 reveal that invariant chemokine features associated with G protein-coupled receptor binding are primarily recognized by the decoy C-terminal domain, whereas the N-terminal domain (NTD) reconfigures to engage divergent basic residue clusters on the surface of chemokines. Favorable electrostatic forces dramatically enhance the association kinetics of chemokine binding by M3, with a primary role ascribed to acidic NTD regions that effectively mimic glycosaminoglycan interactions. Thus, M3 employs two distinct mechanisms of chemical imitation to potently sequester chemokines, thereby inhibiting chemokine receptor binding events as well as the formation of chemotactic gradients necessary for directed leukocyte trafficking.
Dual GPCR and GAG mimicry by the M3 chemokine decoy receptor.,Alexander-Brett JM, Fremont DH J Exp Med. 2007 Dec 24;204(13):3157-72. Epub 2007 Dec 10. PMID:18070938
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.