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|2oid, resolution 2.30Å ()|
|Gene:||IRAK4 (Homo sapiens)|
Crystal structure of IRAK4 kinase domain complexed with AMPPNP
IL-1R-associated kinase (IRAK)4 plays a central role in innate and adaptive immunity, and is a crucial component in IL-1/TLR signaling. We have determined the crystal structures of the apo and ligand-bound forms of human IRAK4 kinase domain. These structures reveal several features that provide opportunities for the design of selective IRAK4 inhibitors. The N-terminal lobe of the IRAK4 kinase domain is structurally distinctive due to a loop insertion after an extended N-terminal helix. The gatekeeper residue is a tyrosine, a unique feature of the IRAK family. The IRAK4 structures also provide insights into the regulation of its activity. In the apo structure, two conformations coexist, differing in the relative orientation of the two kinase lobes and the position of helix C. In the presence of an ATP analog only one conformation is observed, indicating that this is the active conformation.
Cutting Edge: IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 structures reveal novel features and multiple conformations., Kuglstatter A, Villasenor AG, Shaw D, Lee SW, Tsing S, Niu L, Song KW, Barnett JW, Browner MF, J Immunol. 2007 Mar 1;178(5):2641-5. PMID:17312103
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
[IRAK4_HUMAN] Defects in IRAK4 are the cause of recurrent isolated invasive pneumococcal disease type 1 (IPD1) [MIM:610799]. Recurrent invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is defined as two episodes of IPD occurring at least 1 month apart, whether caused by the same or different serotypes or strains. Recurrent IPD occurs in at least 2% of patients in most series, making IPD the most important known risk factor for subsequent IPD. Defects in IRAK4 are the cause of IRAK4 deficiency (IRAK4D) [MIM:607676]. IRAK4 deficiency causes extracellular pyogenic bacterial and fungal infections in otherwise healthy children.
[IRAK4_HUMAN] Serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays a critical role in initiating innate immune response against foreign pathogens. Involved in Toll-like receptor (TLR) and IL-1R signaling pathways. Is rapidly recruited by MYD88 to the receptor-signaling complex upon TLR activation to form the Myddosome together with IRAK2. Phosphorylates initially IRAK1, thus stimulating the kinase activity and intensive autophosphorylation of IRAK1. Phosphorylates E3 ubiquitin ligases Pellino proteins (PELI1, PELI2 and PELI3) to promote pellino-mediated polyubiquitination of IRAK1. Then, the ubiquitin-binding domain of IKBKG/NEMO binds to polyubiquitinated IRAK1 bringing together the IRAK1-MAP3K7/TAK1-TRAF6 complex and the NEMO-IKKA-IKKB complex. In turn, MAP3K7/TAK1 activates IKKs (CHUK/IKKA and IKBKB/IKKB) leading to NF-kappa-B nuclear translocation and activation. Alternatively, phosphorylates TIRAP to promote its ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. Phosphorylates NCF1 and regulates NADPH oxidase activation after LPS stimulation suggesting a similar mechanism during microbial infections.
About this Structure
- Kuglstatter A, Villasenor AG, Shaw D, Lee SW, Tsing S, Niu L, Song KW, Barnett JW, Browner MF. Cutting Edge: IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 structures reveal novel features and multiple conformations. J Immunol. 2007 Mar 1;178(5):2641-5. PMID:17312103
- ↑ Ku CL, Picard C, Erdos M, Jeurissen A, Bustamante J, Puel A, von Bernuth H, Filipe-Santos O, Chang HH, Lawrence T, Raes M, Marodi L, Bossuyt X, Casanova JL. IRAK4 and NEMO mutations in otherwise healthy children with recurrent invasive pneumococcal disease. J Med Genet. 2007 Jan;44(1):16-23. Epub 2006 Sep 1. PMID:16950813 doi:jmg.2006.044446
- ↑ Medvedev AE, Lentschat A, Kuhns DB, Blanco JC, Salkowski C, Zhang S, Arditi M, Gallin JI, Vogel SN. Distinct mutations in IRAK-4 confer hyporesponsiveness to lipopolysaccharide and interleukin-1 in a patient with recurrent bacterial infections. J Exp Med. 2003 Aug 18;198(4):521-31. PMID:12925671 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20030701
- ↑ Picard C, Puel A, Bonnet M, Ku CL, Bustamante J, Yang K, Soudais C, Dupuis S, Feinberg J, Fieschi C, Elbim C, Hitchcock R, Lammas D, Davies G, Al-Ghonaium A, Al-Rayes H, Al-Jumaah S, Al-Hajjar S, Al-Mohsen IZ, Frayha HH, Rucker R, Hawn TR, Aderem A, Tufenkeji H, Haraguchi S, Day NK, Good RA, Gougerot-Pocidalo MA, Ozinsky A, Casanova JL. Pyogenic bacterial infections in humans with IRAK-4 deficiency. Science. 2003 Mar 28;299(5615):2076-9. Epub 2003 Mar 13. PMID:12637671 doi:10.1126/science.1081902
- ↑ Li S, Strelow A, Fontana EJ, Wesche H. IRAK-4: a novel member of the IRAK family with the properties of an IRAK-kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Apr 16;99(8):5567-72. PMID:11960013 doi:10.1073/pnas.082100399
- ↑ Burns K, Janssens S, Brissoni B, Olivos N, Beyaert R, Tschopp J. Inhibition of interleukin 1 receptor/Toll-like receptor signaling through the alternatively spliced, short form of MyD88 is due to its failure to recruit IRAK-4. J Exp Med. 2003 Jan 20;197(2):263-8. PMID:12538665
- ↑ Qin J, Jiang Z, Qian Y, Casanova JL, Li X. IRAK4 kinase activity is redundant for interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor-associated kinase phosphorylation and IL-1 responsiveness. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jun 18;279(25):26748-53. Epub 2004 Apr 14. PMID:15084582 doi:10.1074/jbc.M400785200
- ↑ Pacquelet S, Johnson JL, Ellis BA, Brzezinska AA, Lane WS, Munafo DB, Catz SD. Cross-talk between IRAK-4 and the NADPH oxidase. Biochem J. 2007 May 1;403(3):451-61. PMID:17217339 doi:10.1042/BJ20061184
- ↑ Koziczak-Holbro M, Joyce C, Gluck A, Kinzel B, Muller M, Tschopp C, Mathison JC, Davis CN, Gram H. IRAK-4 kinase activity is required for interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor- and toll-like receptor 7-mediated signaling and gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2007 May 4;282(18):13552-60. Epub 2007 Mar 2. PMID:17337443 doi:10.1074/jbc.M700548200
- ↑ Ordureau A, Smith H, Windheim M, Peggie M, Carrick E, Morrice N, Cohen P. The IRAK-catalysed activation of the E3 ligase function of Pellino isoforms induces the Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of IRAK1. Biochem J. 2008 Jan 1;409(1):43-52. PMID:17997719 doi:10.1042/BJ20071365
- ↑ Dunne A, Carpenter S, Brikos C, Gray P, Strelow A, Wesche H, Morrice N, O'Neill LA. IRAK1 and IRAK4 promote phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and degradation of MyD88 adaptor-like (Mal). J Biol Chem. 2010 Jun 11;285(24):18276-82. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.098137. Epub, 2010 Apr 16. PMID:20400509 doi:10.1074/jbc.M109.098137