[MP2K1_HUMAN] Defects in MAP2K1 are a cause of cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC syndrome) [MIM:115150]; also known as cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome. CFC syndrome is characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, heart defects and mental retardation. Heart defects include pulmonic stenosis, atrial septal defects and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Some affected individuals present with ectodermal abnormalities such as sparse, friable hair, hyperkeratotic skin lesions and a generalized ichthyosis-like condition. Typical facial features are similar to Noonan syndrome. They include high forehead with bitemporal constriction, hypoplastic supraorbital ridges, downslanting palpebral fissures, a depressed nasal bridge, and posteriorly angulated ears with prominent helices. The inheritance of CFC syndrome is autosomal dominant.
[MP2K1_HUMAN] Dual specificity protein kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. Binding of extracellular ligands such as growth factors, cytokines and hormones to their cell-surface receptors activates RAS and this initiates RAF1 activation. RAF1 then further activates the dual-specificity protein kinases MAP2K1/MEK1 and MAP2K2/MEK2. Both MAP2K1/MEK1 and MAP2K2/MEK2 function specifically in the MAPK/ERK cascade, and catalyze the concomitant phosphorylation of a threonine and a tyrosine residue in a Thr-Glu-Tyr sequence located in the extracellular signal-regulated kinases MAPK3/ERK1 and MAPK1/ERK2, leading to their activation and further transduction of the signal within the MAPK/ERK cascade. Depending on the cellular context, this pathway mediates diverse biological functions such as cell growth, adhesion, survival and differentiation, predominantly through the regulation of transcription, metabolism and cytoskeletal rearrangements. One target of the MAPK/ERK cascade is peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), a nuclear receptor that promotes differentiation and apoptosis. MAP2K1/MEK1 has been shown to export PPARG from the nucleus. The MAPK/ERK cascade is also involved in the regulation of endosomal dynamics, including lysosome processing and endosome cycling through the perinuclear recycling compartment (PNRC), as well as in the fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus during mitosis.
A new series of MEK1 inhibitors, the 4-anilino-5-carboxamido-2-pyridones, were designed and synthesized using a combination of medicinal chemistry, computational chemistry, and structural elucidation. The effect of variation in the carboxamide side chain, substitution on the pyridone nitrogen, and replacement of the 4'-iodide were all investigated. This study afforded several compounds which were either equipotent or more potent than the clinical candidate CI-1040 (1) in an isolated enzyme assay, as well as murine colon carcinoma (C26) cells, as measured by suppression of phosphorylated ERK substrate. Most notably, pyridone 27 was found to be more potent than 1 in vitro and produced a 100% response rate at a lower dose than 1, when tested for in vivo efficacy in animals bearing C26 tumors.
4-anilino-5-carboxamido-2-pyridone derivatives as noncompetitive inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase.,Spicer JA, Rewcastle GW, Kaufman MD, Black SL, Plummer MS, Denny WA, Quin J 3rd, Shahripour AB, Barrett SD, Whitehead CE, Milbank JB, Ohren JF, Gowan RC, Omer C, Camp HS, Esmaeil N, Moore K, Sebolt-Leopold JS, Pryzbranowski S, Merriman RL, Ortwine DF, Warmus JS, Flamme CM, Pavlovsky AG, Tecle H J Med Chem. 2007 Oct 18;50(21):5090-102. Epub 2007 Sep 19. PMID:17880056
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Liu X, Yan S, Zhou T, Terada Y, Erikson RL. The MAP kinase pathway is required for entry into mitosis and cell survival. Oncogene. 2004 Jan 22;23(3):763-76. PMID:14737111 doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1207188
↑ Burgermeister E, Chuderland D, Hanoch T, Meyer M, Liscovitch M, Seger R. Interaction with MEK causes nuclear export and downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Mol Cell Biol. 2007 Feb;27(3):803-17. Epub 2006 Nov 13. PMID:17101779 doi:10.1128/MCB.00601-06
↑ Spicer JA, Rewcastle GW, Kaufman MD, Black SL, Plummer MS, Denny WA, Quin J 3rd, Shahripour AB, Barrett SD, Whitehead CE, Milbank JB, Ohren JF, Gowan RC, Omer C, Camp HS, Esmaeil N, Moore K, Sebolt-Leopold JS, Pryzbranowski S, Merriman RL, Ortwine DF, Warmus JS, Flamme CM, Pavlovsky AG, Tecle H. 4-anilino-5-carboxamido-2-pyridone derivatives as noncompetitive inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase. J Med Chem. 2007 Oct 18;50(21):5090-102. Epub 2007 Sep 19. PMID:17880056 doi:10.1021/jm0704548