2puq is a 4 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. This structure supersedes the now removed PDB entry 2pmm. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA. For a guided tour on the structure components use FirstGlance.
[FA7_HUMAN] Defects in F7 are the cause of factor VII deficiency (FA7D) [MIM:227500]. A hemorrhagic disease with variable presentation. The clinical picture can be very severe, with the early occurrence of intracerebral hemorrhages or repeated hemarthroses, or, in contrast, moderate with cutaneous-mucosal hemorrhages (epistaxis, menorrhagia) or hemorrhages provoked by a surgical intervention. Finally, numerous subjects are completely asymptomatic despite very low factor VII levels.
[FA7_HUMAN] Initiates the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. Serine protease that circulates in the blood in a zymogen form. Factor VII is converted to factor VIIa by factor Xa, factor XIIa, factor IXa, or thrombin by minor proteolysis. In the presence of tissue factor and calcium ions, factor VIIa then converts factor X to factor Xa by limited proteolysis. Factor VIIa will also convert factor IX to factor IXa in the presence of tissue factor and calcium. [TF_HUMAN] Initiates blood coagulation by forming a complex with circulating factor VII or VIIa. The [TF:VIIa] complex activates factors IX or X by specific limited protolysis. TF plays a role in normal hemostasis by initiating the cell-surface assembly and propagation of the coagulation protease cascade.
The remarkably high specificity of the coagulation proteases towards macromolecular substrates is provided by numerous interactions involving the catalytic groove and remote exosites. For FVIIa [activated FVII (Factor VII)], the principal initiator of coagulation via the extrinsic pathway, several exosites have been identified, whereas only little is known about the specificity dictated by the active-site architecture. In the present study, we have profiled the primary P4-P1 substrate specificity of FVIIa using positional scanning substrate combinatorial libraries and evaluated the role of the selective active site in defining specificity. Being a trypsin-like serine protease, FVIIa had P1 specificity exclusively towards arginine and lysine residues. In the S2 pocket, threonine, leucine, phenylalanine and valine residues were the most preferred amino acids. Both S3 and S4 appeared to be rather promiscuous, however, with some preference for aromatic amino acids at both positions. Interestingly, a significant degree of interdependence between the S3 and S4 was observed and, as a consequence, the optimal substrate for FVIIa could not be derived directly from a subsite-directed specificity screen. To evaluate the role of the active-site residues in defining specificity, a series of mutants of FVIIa were prepared at position 239 (position 99 in chymotrypsin), which is considered to be one of the most important residues for determining P2 specificity of the trypsin family members. This was confirmed for FVIIa by marked changes in primary substrate specificity and decreased rates of antithrombin III inhibition. Interestingly, these changes do not necessarily coincide with an altered ability to activate Factor X, demonstrating that inhibitor and macromolecular substrate selectivity may be engineered separately.
Engineering the substrate and inhibitor specificities of human coagulation Factor VIIa.,Larsen KS, Ostergaard H, Bjelke JR, Olsen OH, Rasmussen HB, Christensen L, Kragelund BB, Stennicke HR Biochem J. 2007 Aug 1;405(3):429-38. PMID:17456045
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Bernardi F, Liney DL, Patracchini P, Gemmati D, Legnani C, Arcieri P, Pinotti M, Redaelli R, Ballerini G, Pemberton S, et al.. Molecular defects in CRM+ factor VII deficiencies: modelling of missense mutations in the catalytic domain of FVII. Br J Haematol. 1994 Mar;86(3):610-8. PMID:8043443
↑ O'Brien DP, Gale KM, Anderson JS, McVey JH, Miller GJ, Meade TW, Tuddenham EG. Purification and characterization of factor VII 304-Gln: a variant molecule with reduced activity isolated from a clinically unaffected male. Blood. 1991 Jul 1;78(1):132-40. PMID:2070047
↑ Marchetti G, Patracchini P, Gemmati D, DeRosa V, Pinotti M, Rodorigo G, Casonato A, Girolami A, Bernardi F. Detection of two missense mutations and characterization of a repeat polymorphism in the factor VII gene (F7). Hum Genet. 1992 Jul;89(5):497-502. PMID:1634227
↑ Marchetti G, Ferrati M, Patracchini P, Redaelli R, Bernardi F. A missense mutation (178Cys-->Tyr) and two neutral dimorphisms (115His and 333Ser) in the human coagulation factor VII gene. Hum Mol Genet. 1993 Jul;2(7):1055-6. PMID:8364544
↑ Chaing S, Clarke B, Sridhara S, Chu K, Friedman P, VanDusen W, Roberts HR, Blajchman M, Monroe DM, High KA. Severe factor VII deficiency caused by mutations abolishing the cleavage site for activation and altering binding to tissue factor. Blood. 1994 Jun 15;83(12):3524-35. PMID:8204879
↑ Bernardi F, Castaman G, Redaelli R, Pinotti M, Lunghi B, Rodeghiero F, Marchetti G. Topologically equivalent mutations causing dysfunctional coagulation factors VII (294Ala-->Val) and X (334Ser-->Pro). Hum Mol Genet. 1994 Jul;3(7):1175-7. PMID:7981691
↑ Ohiwa M, Hayashi T, Wada H, Minamikawa K, Shirakawa S, Suzuki K. Factor VII Mie: homozygous asymptomatic type I deficiency caused by an amino acid substitution of His (CAC) for Arg(247) (CGC) in the catalytic domain. Thromb Haemost. 1994 Jun;71(6):773-7. PMID:7974346
↑ Arbini AA, Mannucci M, Bauer KA. A Thr359Met mutation in factor VII of a patient with a hereditary deficiency causes defective secretion of the molecule. Blood. 1996 Jun 15;87(12):5085-94. PMID:8652821
↑ Bharadwaj D, Iino M, Kontoyianni M, Smith KJ, Foster DC, Kisiel W. Factor VII central. A novel mutation in the catalytic domain that reduces tissue factor binding, impairs activation by factor Xa, and abolishes amidolytic and coagulant activity. J Biol Chem. 1996 Nov 29;271(48):30685-91. PMID:8940045
↑ Tamary H, Fromovich Y, Shalmon L, Reich Z, Dym O, Lanir N, Brenner B, Paz M, Luder AS, Blau O, Korostishevsky M, Zaizov R, Seligsohn U. Ala244Val is a common, probably ancient mutation causing factor VII deficiency in Moroccan and Iranian Jews. Thromb Haemost. 1996 Sep;76(3):283-91. PMID:8883260
↑ Leonard BJ, Chen Q, Blajchman MA, Ofosu FA, Sridhara S, Yang D, Clarke BJ. Factor VII deficiency caused by a structural variant N57D of the first epidermal growth factor domain. Blood. 1998 Jan 1;91(1):142-8. PMID:9414278
↑ Ozawa T, Takikawa Y, Niiya K, Ejiri N, Suzuki K, Sato S, Sakuragawa N. Factor VII Morioka (FVII L-26P): a homozygous missense mutation in the signal sequence identified in a patient with factor VII deficiency. Br J Haematol. 1998 Apr;101(1):47-9. PMID:9576180
↑ Alshinawi C, Scerri C, Galdies R, Aquilina A, Felice AE. Two new missense mutations (P134T and A244V) in the coagulation factor VII gene. Hum Mutat. 1998;Suppl 1:S189-91. PMID:9452082
↑ Au WY, Lam CC, Chan EC, Kwong YL. Two novel factor VII gene mutations in a Chinese family with factor VII deficiency. Br J Haematol. 2000 Oct;111(1):143-5. PMID:11091194
↑ Millar DS, Kemball-Cook G, McVey JH, Tuddenham EG, Mumford AD, Attock GB, Reverter JC, Lanir N, Parapia LA, Reynaud J, Meili E, von Felton A, Martinowitz U, Prangnell DR, Krawczak M, Cooper DN. Molecular analysis of the genotype-phenotype relationship in factor VII deficiency. Hum Genet. 2000 Oct;107(4):327-42. PMID:11129332
↑ Nagaizumi K, Inaba H, Suzuki T, Hatta Y, Hagiwara T, Amano K, Arai M, Fukutake K. Two double heterozygous mutations in the F7 gene show different manifestations. Br J Haematol. 2002 Dec;119(4):1052-8. PMID:12472587
↑ Takamiya O, Hino K. A patient homozygous for a Gly354Cys mutation in factor VII that results in severely impaired secretion of the molecule, but not complete deficiency. Br J Haematol. 2004 Feb;124(3):336-42. PMID:14717781
↑ Mota L, Shetty S, Idicula-Thomas S, Ghosh K. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Factor VII deficiency patients from Western India. Clin Chim Acta. 2009 Nov;409(1-2):106-11. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2009.09.007. Epub, 2009 Sep 13. PMID:19751712 doi:10.1016/j.cca.2009.09.007
↑ Herrmann FH, Wulff K, Auerswald G, Schulman S, Astermark J, Batorova A, Kreuz W, Pollmann H, Ruiz-Saez A, De Bosch N, Salazar-Sanchez L. Factor VII deficiency: clinical manifestation of 717 subjects from Europe and Latin America with mutations in the factor 7 gene. Haemophilia. 2009 Jan;15(1):267-80. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2516.2008.01910.x. Epub, 2008 Oct 30. PMID:18976247 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2516.2008.01910.x
↑ Landau D, Rosenberg N, Zivelin A, Staretz-Chacham O, Kapelushnik J. Familial factor VII deficiency with foetal and neonatal fatal cerebral haemorrhage associated with homozygosis to Gly180Arg mutation. Haemophilia. 2009 May;15(3):774-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2516.2009.02004.x. PMID:19432927 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2516.2009.02004.x
↑ Kwon MJ, Yoo KY, Lee KO, Kim SH, Kim HJ. Recurrent mutations and genotype-phenotype correlations in hereditary factor VII deficiency in Korea. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2011 Mar;22(2):102-5. doi:, 10.1097/MBC.0b013e328343641a. PMID:21206266 doi:10.1097/MBC.0b013e328343641a
↑ Jiang M, Wang Z, Yu Z, Bai X, Su J, Cao L, Zhang W, Ruan C. A novel missense mutation close to the charge-stabilizing system in a patient with congenital factor VII deficiency. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2011 Jun;22(4):264-70. doi:, 10.1097/MBC.0b013e3283447388. PMID:21372693 doi:10.1097/MBC.0b013e3283447388
↑ Bogdanov VY, Balasubramanian V, Hathcock J, Vele O, Lieb M, Nemerson Y. Alternatively spliced human tissue factor: a circulating, soluble, thrombogenic protein. Nat Med. 2003 Apr;9(4):458-62. Epub 2003 Mar 24. PMID:12652293 doi:10.1038/nm841
↑ Larsen KS, Ostergaard H, Bjelke JR, Olsen OH, Rasmussen HB, Christensen L, Kragelund BB, Stennicke HR. Engineering the substrate and inhibitor specificities of human coagulation Factor VIIa. Biochem J. 2007 Aug 1;405(3):429-38. PMID:17456045 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BJ20061901