CRITICAL STRUCTURAL ROLE FOR THE PH AND C1 DOMAINS OF THE VAV1 EXCHANGE FACTOR
[RAC1_HUMAN] Plasma membrane-associated small GTPase which cycles between active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound states. In its active state, binds to a variety of effector proteins to regulate cellular responses such as secretory processes, phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, epithelial cell polarization and growth-factor induced formation of membrane ruffles. Rac1 p21/rho GDI heterodimer is the active component of the cytosolic factor sigma 1, which is involved in stimulation of the NADPH oxidase activity in macrophages (By similarity). Essential for the SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and disassembly. Stimulates PKN2 kinase activity. In concert with RAB7A, plays a role in regulating the formation of RBs (ruffled borders) in osteoclasts. In glioma cells, promotes cell migration and invasion.     Isoform B has an accelerated GEF-independent GDP/GTP exchange and an impaired GTP hydrolysis, which is restored partially by GTPase-activating proteins. It is able to bind to the GTPase-binding domain of PAK but not full-length PAK in a GTP-dependent manner, suggesting that the insertion does not completely abolish effector interaction.     [VAV_MOUSE] Couples tyrosine kinase signals with the activation of the Rho/Rac GTPases, thus leading to cell differentiation and/or proliferation.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The Vav family of proteins are guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for the Rho family of GTPases, which regulate various cellular functions, including T-cell activation. They contain a catalytic Dbl homology (DH) domain that is invariably followed by a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, which is often required for catalytic activity. Vav proteins are the first GEFs for which an additional C1 domain is required for full biological activity. Here, we present the structure of a Vav1 fragment comprising the DH-PH-C1 domains bound to Rac1. This structure shows that the PH and C1 domains form a single structural unit that packs against the carboxy-terminal helix of the DH domain to stabilize its conformation and to promote nucleotide exchange. In contrast to previous reports, this structure shows that there are no direct contacts between the GTPase and C1 domain but instead suggests new mechanisms for the regulation of Vav1 activity.
Crucial structural role for the PH and C1 domains of the Vav1 exchange factor.,Rapley J, Tybulewicz VL, Rittinger K EMBO Rep. 2008 Jul;9(7):655-61. Epub 2008 May 30. PMID:18511940
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.