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2ws7

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2ws7, resolution 2.59Å ()
Ligands: , ,
Related: 1hit, 2hho, 2c8q, 1tyl, 2c8r, 1t1k, 1aiy, 1xda, 1htv, 1mso, 1uz9, 1fub, 1tym, 1hui, 2vk0, 1vkt, 1hls, 2ceu, 1t1q, 1qj0, 1mhj, 1fu2, 1sjt, 1qiy, 1iog, 2vjz, 1ioh, 1trz, 1evr, 1ev3, 1rwe, 1os4, 1guj, 1ai0, 1sf1, 1jco, 1jca, 1zeg, 1os3, 1xgl, 1t0c, 1qiz, 1g7b, 2wby, 2aiy, 1ev6, 1q4v, 2hh4, 2h67, 4aiy, 1j73, 1k3m, 1mhi, 2wc0, 1kmf, 2hiu, 1xw7, 5aiy, 1g7a, 1znj, 1zeh, 1his, 1b9e, 3aiy, 1w8p, 1hiq, 1lph, 1efe, 1t1p, 1a7f, 1ben, 1lkq, 2ws0, 2ws4, 2ws1, 2ws6, 2wrx, 2wrw, 2wru, 2wrv


Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


Contents

Semi-synthetic analogue of human insulin ProB26-DTI

Publication Abstract from PubMed

Insulin is a key protein hormone that regulates blood glucose levels and, thus, has widespread impact on lipid and protein metabolism. Insulin action is manifested through binding of its monomeric form to the Insulin Receptor (IR). At present, however, our knowledge about the structural behavior of insulin is based upon inactive, multimeric, and storage-like states. The active monomeric structure, when in complex with the receptor, must be different as the residues crucial for the interactions are buried within the multimeric forms. Although the exact nature of the insulin's induced-fit is unknown, there is strong evidence that the C-terminal part of the B-chain is a dynamic element in insulin activation and receptor binding. Here, we present the design and analysis of highly active (200-500%) insulin analogues that are truncated at residue 26 of the B-chain (B(26)). They show a structural convergence in the form of a new beta-turn at B(24)-B(26). We propose that the key element in insulin's transition, from an inactive to an active state, may be the formation of the beta-turn at B(24)-B(26) associated with a trans to cis isomerisation at the B(25)-B(26) peptide bond. Here, this turn is achieved with N-methylated L-amino acids adjacent to the trans to cis switch at the B(25)-B(26) peptide bond or by the insertion of certain D-amino acids at B(26). The resultant conformational changes unmask previously buried amino acids that are implicated in IR binding and provide structural details for new approaches in rational design of ligands effective in combating diabetes.

Implications for the active form of human insulin based on the structural convergence of highly active hormone analogues., Jiracek J, Zakova L, Antolikova E, Watson CJ, Turkenburg JP, Dodson GG, Brzozowski AM, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Feb 2;107(5):1966-70. Epub 2010 Jan 25. PMID:20133841

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Disease

[INS_HUMAN] Defects in INS are the cause of familial hyperproinsulinemia (FHPRI) [MIM:176730].[1][2][3][4] Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent type 2 (IDDM2) [MIM:125852]. IDDM2 is a multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical fetaures are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels.[5] Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus permanent neonatal (PNDM) [MIM:606176]. PNDM is a rare form of diabetes distinct from childhood-onset autoimmune diabetes mellitus type 1. It is characterized by insulin-requiring hyperglycemia that is diagnosed within the first months of life. Permanent neonatal diabetes requires lifelong therapy.[6][7] Defects in INS are a cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 10 (MODY10) [MIM:613370]. MODY10 is a form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early adulthood (usually before 25 years of age), a primary defect in insulin secretion and frequent insulin-independence at the beginning of the disease.[8][9][10]

Function

[INS_HUMAN] Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver.

About this Structure

2ws7 is a 12 chain structure. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

See Also

Reference

  • Jiracek J, Zakova L, Antolikova E, Watson CJ, Turkenburg JP, Dodson GG, Brzozowski AM. Implications for the active form of human insulin based on the structural convergence of highly active hormone analogues. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Feb 2;107(5):1966-70. Epub 2010 Jan 25. PMID:20133841 doi:10.1073/pnas.0911785107
  1. Chan SJ, Seino S, Gruppuso PA, Schwartz R, Steiner DF. A mutation in the B chain coding region is associated with impaired proinsulin conversion in a family with hyperproinsulinemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Apr;84(8):2194-7. PMID:3470784
  2. Barbetti F, Raben N, Kadowaki T, Cama A, Accili D, Gabbay KH, Merenich JA, Taylor SI, Roth J. Two unrelated patients with familial hyperproinsulinemia due to a mutation substituting histidine for arginine at position 65 in the proinsulin molecule: identification of the mutation by direct sequencing of genomic deoxyribonucleic acid amplified by polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990 Jul;71(1):164-9. PMID:2196279
  3. Shibasaki Y, Kawakami T, Kanazawa Y, Akanuma Y, Takaku F. Posttranslational cleavage of proinsulin is blocked by a point mutation in familial hyperproinsulinemia. J Clin Invest. 1985 Jul;76(1):378-80. PMID:4019786 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI111973
  4. Yano H, Kitano N, Morimoto M, Polonsky KS, Imura H, Seino Y. A novel point mutation in the human insulin gene giving rise to hyperproinsulinemia (proinsulin Kyoto). J Clin Invest. 1992 Jun;89(6):1902-7. PMID:1601997 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI115795
  5. Molven A, Ringdal M, Nordbo AM, Raeder H, Stoy J, Lipkind GM, Steiner DF, Philipson LH, Bergmann I, Aarskog D, Undlien DE, Joner G, Sovik O, Bell GI, Njolstad PR. Mutations in the insulin gene can cause MODY and autoantibody-negative type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 2008 Apr;57(4):1131-5. doi: 10.2337/db07-1467. Epub 2008 Jan 11. PMID:18192540 doi:10.2337/db07-1467
  6. Stoy J, Edghill EL, Flanagan SE, Ye H, Paz VP, Pluzhnikov A, Below JE, Hayes MG, Cox NJ, Lipkind GM, Lipton RB, Greeley SA, Patch AM, Ellard S, Steiner DF, Hattersley AT, Philipson LH, Bell GI. Insulin gene mutations as a cause of permanent neonatal diabetes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Sep 18;104(38):15040-4. Epub 2007 Sep 12. PMID:17855560 doi:10.1073/pnas.0707291104
  7. Edghill EL, Flanagan SE, Patch AM, Boustred C, Parrish A, Shields B, Shepherd MH, Hussain K, Kapoor RR, Malecki M, MacDonald MJ, Stoy J, Steiner DF, Philipson LH, Bell GI, Hattersley AT, Ellard S. Insulin mutation screening in 1,044 patients with diabetes: mutations in the INS gene are a common cause of neonatal diabetes but a rare cause of diabetes diagnosed in childhood or adulthood. Diabetes. 2008 Apr;57(4):1034-42. Epub 2007 Dec 27. PMID:18162506 doi:10.2337/db07-1405
  8. Molven A, Ringdal M, Nordbo AM, Raeder H, Stoy J, Lipkind GM, Steiner DF, Philipson LH, Bergmann I, Aarskog D, Undlien DE, Joner G, Sovik O, Bell GI, Njolstad PR. Mutations in the insulin gene can cause MODY and autoantibody-negative type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 2008 Apr;57(4):1131-5. doi: 10.2337/db07-1467. Epub 2008 Jan 11. PMID:18192540 doi:10.2337/db07-1467
  9. Edghill EL, Flanagan SE, Patch AM, Boustred C, Parrish A, Shields B, Shepherd MH, Hussain K, Kapoor RR, Malecki M, MacDonald MJ, Stoy J, Steiner DF, Philipson LH, Bell GI, Hattersley AT, Ellard S. Insulin mutation screening in 1,044 patients with diabetes: mutations in the INS gene are a common cause of neonatal diabetes but a rare cause of diabetes diagnosed in childhood or adulthood. Diabetes. 2008 Apr;57(4):1034-42. Epub 2007 Dec 27. PMID:18162506 doi:10.2337/db07-1405
  10. Boesgaard TW, Pruhova S, Andersson EA, Cinek O, Obermannova B, Lauenborg J, Damm P, Bergholdt R, Pociot F, Pisinger C, Barbetti F, Lebl J, Pedersen O, Hansen T. Further evidence that mutations in INS can be a rare cause of Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY). BMC Med Genet. 2010 Mar 12;11:42. doi: 10.1186/1471-2350-11-42. PMID:20226046 doi:10.1186/1471-2350-11-42

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