From Proteopediaproteopedia link
Structure of a single domain camelid antibody fragment in complex with a C-terminal peptide of alpha-synuclein
[SYUA_HUMAN] Note=Genetic alterations of SNCA resulting in aberrant polymerization into fibrils, are associated with several neurodegenerative diseases (synucleinopathies). SNCA fibrillar aggregates represent the major non A-beta component of Alzheimer disease amyloid plaque, and a major component of Lewy body inclusions. They are also found within Lewy body (LB)-like intraneuronal inclusions, glial inclusions and axonal spheroids in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type 1. Defects in SNCA are the cause of Parkinson disease type 1 (PARK1) [MIM:168601]. A complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by bradykinesia, resting tremor, muscular rigidity and postural instability. Additional features are characteristic postural abnormalities, dysautonomia, dystonic cramps, and dementia. The pathology of Parkinson disease involves the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the presence of Lewy bodies (intraneuronal accumulations of aggregated proteins), in surviving neurons in various areas of the brain. The disease is progressive and usually manifests after the age of 50 years, although early-onset cases (before 50 years) are known. The majority of the cases are sporadic suggesting a multifactorial etiology based on environmental and genetic factors. However, some patients present with a positive family history for the disease. Familial forms of the disease usually begin at earlier ages and are associated with atypical clinical features.   Defects in SNCA are the cause of Parkinson disease type 4 (PARK4) [MIM:605543]. A complex neurodegenerative disorder with manifestations ranging from typical Parkinson disease to dementia with Lewy bodies. Clinical features include parkinsonian symptoms (tremor, rigidity, postural instability and bradykinesia), dementia, diffuse Lewy body pathology, autonomic dysfunction, hallucinations and paranoia. Defects in SNCA are the cause of dementia Lewy body (DLB) [MIM:127750]. A neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterized by mental impairment leading to dementia, parkinsonism, often with fluctuating cognitive function, visual hallucinations, falls, syncopal episodes, and sensitivity to neuroleptic medication. Brainstem or cortical intraneuronal accumulations of aggregated proteins (Lewy bodies) are the only essential pathologic features. Patients may also have hippocampal and neocortical senile plaques, sometimes in sufficient number to fulfill the diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer disease.
[SYUA_HUMAN] May be involved in the regulation of dopamine release and transport. Induces fibrillization of microtubule-associated protein tau. Reduces neuronal responsiveness to various apoptotic stimuli, leading to a decreased caspase-3 activation.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The aggregation of the intrinsically disordered protein alpha-synuclein to form fibrillar amyloid structures is intimately associated with a variety of neurological disorders, most notably Parkinson's disease. The molecular mechanism of alpha-synuclein aggregation and toxicity is not yet understood in any detail, not least because of the paucity of structural probes through which to study the behavior of such a disordered system. Here, we describe an investigation involving a single-domain camelid antibody, NbSyn2, selected by phage display techniques to bind to alpha-synuclein, including the exploration of its effects on the in vitro aggregation of the protein under a variety of conditions. We show using isothermal calorimetric methods that NbSyn2 binds specifically to monomeric alpha-synuclein with nanomolar affinity and by means of NMR spectroscopy that it interacts with the four C-terminal residues of the protein. This latter finding is confirmed by the determination of a crystal structure of NbSyn2 bound to a peptide encompassing the nine C-terminal residues of alpha-synuclein. The NbSyn2:alpha-synuclein interaction is mediated mainly by side-chain interactions while water molecules cross-link the main-chain atoms of alpha-synuclein to atoms of NbSyn2, a feature we believe could be important in intrinsically disordered protein interactions more generally. The aggregation behavior of alpha-synuclein at physiological pH, including the morphology of the resulting fibrillar structures, is remarkably unaffected by the presence of NbSyn2 and indeed we show that NbSyn2 binds strongly to the aggregated as well as to the soluble forms of alpha-synuclein. These results give strong support to the conjecture that the C-terminal region of the protein is not directly involved in the mechanism of aggregation and suggest that binding of NbSyn2 could be a useful probe for the identification of alpha-synuclein aggregation in vitro and possibly in vivo.
Structure and properties of a complex of alpha-synuclein and a single-domain camelid antibody.,De Genst EJ, Guilliams T, Wellens J, O'Day EM, Waudby CA, Meehan S, Dumoulin M, Hsu ST, Cremades N, Verschueren KH, Pardon E, Wyns L, Steyaert J, Christodoulou J, Dobson CM J Mol Biol. 2010 Sep 17;402(2):326-43. Epub 2010 Jul 8. PMID:20620148
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.