STRUCTURAL BASIS OF HIV-1 TETHERING TO MEMBRANES BY THE BST2-TETHERIN ECTODOMAIN
[BST2_HUMAN] IFN-induced antiviral host restriction factor which efficiently blocks the release of diverse mammalian enveloped viruses by directly tethering nascent virions to the membranes of infected cells. Acts as a direct physical tether, holding virions to the cell membrane and linking virions to each other. The tethered virions can be internalized by endocytosis and subsequently degraded or they can remain on the cell surface. In either case, their spread as cell-free virions is restricted. Its target viruses belong to diverse families, including retroviridae: human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2), simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), prototype foamy virus (PFV), Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV), human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) and murine leukemia virus (MLV), flavivirideae: hepatitis C virus (HCV), filoviridae: ebola virus (EBOV) and marburg virus (MARV), arenaviridae: lassa virus (LASV) and machupo virus (MACV), herpesviridae: kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), rhabdoviridae: vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), orthomyxoviridae: influenza A virus, and paramyxoviridae: nipah virus. Can inhibit cell surface proteolytic activity of MMP14 causing decreased activation of MMP15 which results in inhibition of cell growth and migration. Can stimulate signaling by LILRA4/ILT7 and consequently provide negative feedback to the production of IFN by plasmacytoid dendritic cells in response to viral infection. Plays a role in the organization of the subapical actin cytoskeleton in polarized epithelial cells.              
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The restriction factor BST-2/tetherin contains two membrane anchors employed to retain some enveloped viruses, including HIV-1 tethered to the plasma membrane in the absence of virus-encoded antagonists. The 2.77 A crystal structure of the BST-2/tetherin extracellular core presented here reveals a parallel 90 A long disulfide-linked coiled-coil domain, while the complete extracellular domain forms an extended 170 A long rod-like structure based on small-angle X-ray scattering data. Mutagenesis analyses indicate that both the coiled coil and the N-terminal region are required for retention of HIV-1, suggesting that the elongated structure can function as a molecular ruler to bridge long distances. The structure reveals substantial irregularities and instabilities throughout the coiled coil, which contribute to its low stability in the absence of disulfide bonds. We propose that the irregular coiled coil provides conformational flexibility, ensuring that BST-2/tetherin anchoring both in the plasma membrane and in the newly formed virus membrane is maintained during virus budding.
Structural basis of HIV-1 tethering to membranes by the BST-2/tetherin ectodomain.,Hinz A, Miguet N, Natrajan G, Usami Y, Yamanaka H, Renesto P, Hartlieb B, McCarthy AA, Simorre JP, Gottlinger H, Weissenhorn W Cell Host Microbe. 2010 Apr 22;7(4):314-23. PMID:20399176
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.