X-RAY STRUCTURE OF ACID-BETA-GLUCOSIDASE WITH 5N,6S-(N'-(N-OCTYL)IMINO)-6-THIONOJIRIMYCIN IN THE ACTIVE SITE
[GLCM_HUMAN] Defects in GBA are the cause of Gaucher disease (GD) [MIM:230800]; also known as glucocerebrosidase deficiency. GD is the most prevalent lysosomal storage disease, characterized by accumulation of glucosylceramide in the reticulo-endothelial system. Different clinical forms are recognized depending on the presence (neuronopathic forms) or absence of central nervous system involvement, severity and age of onset. [:]                                              Defects in GBA are the cause of Gaucher disease type 1 (GD1) [MIM:230800]; also known as adult non-neuronopathic Gaucher disease. GD1 is characterized by hepatosplenomegaly with consequent anemia and thrombopenia, and bone involvement. The central nervous system is not involved.[:]          Defects in GBA are the cause of Gaucher disease type 2 (GD2) [MIM:230900]; also known as acute neuronopathic Gaucher disease. GD2 is the most severe form and is universally progressive and fatal. It manifests soon after birth, with death generally occurring before patients reach two years of age.        Defects in GBA are the cause of Gaucher disease type 3 (GD3) [MIM:231000]; also known as subacute neuronopathic Gaucher disease. GD3 has central nervous manifestations.       Defects in GBA are the cause of Gaucher disease type 3C (GD3C) [MIM:231005]; also known as pseudo-Gaucher disease or Gaucher-like disease.      Defects in GBA are the cause of Gaucher disease perinatal lethal (GDPL) [MIM:608013]. It is a distinct form of Gaucher disease type 2, characterized by fetal onset. Hydrops fetalis, in utero fetal death and neonatal distress are prominent features. When hydrops is absent, neurologic involvement begins in the first week and leads to death within 3 months. Hepatosplenomegaly is a major sign, and is associated with ichthyosis, arthrogryposis, and facial dysmorphism.      Note=Perinatal lethal Gaucher disease is associated with non-immune hydrops fetalis, a generalized edema of the fetus with fluid accumulation in the body cavities due to non-immune causes. Non-immune hydrops fetalis is not a diagnosis in itself but a symptom, a feature of many genetic disorders, and the end-stage of a wide variety of disorders.      Defects in GBA contribute to susceptibility to Parkinson disease (PARK) [MIM:168600]. A complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by bradykinesia, resting tremor, muscular rigidity and postural instability. Additional features are characteristic postural abnormalities, dysautonomia, dystonic cramps, and dementia. The pathology of Parkinson disease involves the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the presence of Lewy bodies (intraneuronal accumulations of aggregated proteins), in surviving neurons in various areas of the brain. The disease is progressive and usually manifests after the age of 50 years, although early-onset cases (before 50 years) are known. The majority of the cases are sporadic suggesting a multifactorial etiology based on environmental and genetic factors. However, some patients present with a positive family history for the disease. Familial forms of the disease usually begin at earlier ages and are associated with atypical clinical features.     
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Cyclodextrin-based host-guest chemistry has been exploited to facilitate co-crystallization of recombinant human acid beta-glucosidase (beta-glucocerebrosidase, GlcCerase) with amphiphilic bicyclic nojirimycin analogues of the sp(2)-iminosugar type. Attempts to co-crystallize GlcCerase with 5-N,6-O-[N'-(n-octyl)iminomethylidene]nojirimycin (NOI-NJ) or with 5-N,6-S-[N'-(n-octyl)iminomethylidene]-6-thionojirimycin (6S-NOI-NJ), two potent inhibitors of the enzyme with promising pharmacological chaperone activity for several Gaucher disease-associated mutations, were unsuccessful probably due to the formation of aggregates that increase the heterogeneity of the sample and affect nucleation and growth of crystals. Cyclomaltoheptaose (beta-cyclodextrin, betaCD) efficiently captures NOI-NJ and 6S-NOI-NJ in aqueous media to form inclusion complexes in which the lipophilic tail is accommodated in the hydrophobic cavity of the cyclooligosaccharide. The dissociation constant of the complex of the amphiphilic sp(2)-iminosugars with betaCD is two orders of magnitude higher than that of the corresponding complex with GlcCerase, allowing the efficient transfer of the inhibitor from the betaCD cavity to the GlcCerase active site. Enzyme-inhibitor complexes suitable for X-ray analysis were thus grown in the presence of betaCD. In contrast to what was previously observed for the complex of GlcCerase with the more basic derivative, 6-amino-6-deoxy-5-N,6-N-[N'-(n-octyl)iminomethylidene]nojirimycin (6N-NOI-NJ), the beta-anomers of both NOI-NJ and 6S-NOI-NJ were seen in the active site, even though the alpha-anomer was exclusively detected both in aqueous solution and in the corresponding betaCD:sp(2)-iminosugar complexes. Our results further suggest that cyclodextrin derivatives might serve as suitable delivery systems of amphiphilic glycosidase inhibitors in a biomedical context.
Cyclodextrin-mediated crystallization of acid beta-glucosidase in complex with amphiphilic bicyclic nojirimycin analogues.,Brumshtein B, Aguilar-Moncayo M, Benito JM, Garcia Fernandez JM, Silman I, Shaaltiel Y, Aviezer D, Sussman JL, Futerman AH, Ortiz Mellet C Org Biomol Chem. 2011 Jun 7;9(11):4160-7. Epub 2011 Apr 11. PMID:21483943
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.