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3ayu

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3ayu, resolution 2.00Å ()
Ligands: ,
Gene: MMP2, CLG4A (Homo sapiens)
Activity: Gelatinase A, with EC number 3.4.24.24


Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


Contents

Crystal structure of MMP-2 active site mutant in complex with APP-drived decapeptide inhibitor

Publication Abstract from PubMed

Unlike other synthetic or physiological inhibitors for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), the beta-amyloid precursor protein-derived inhibitory peptide (APP-IP) having ISYGNDALMP sequence has a high selectivity toward MMP-2. Our previous study identified amino acid residues of MMP-2 essential for its selective inhibition by APP-IP, and also demonstrated that the N to C direction of the decapeptide inhibitor relative to the substrate-binding cleft of MMP-2 is opposite to that of substrate. However, detailed interactions between the two molecules remained to be clarified. Here, we determined the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of MMP-2 in complex with APP-IP. We found that APP-IP in the complex is indeed embedded into the substrate-binding cleft of the catalytic domain in the N to C direction opposite to that of substrate. With the crystal structure, it was first clarified that the aromatic side chain of Tyr(3) of the inhibitor is accommodated into the S1' pocket of the protease, and the carboxylate group of Asp(6) of APP-IP coordinates bidentately to the catalytic zinc of the enzyme. The Ala(7) to Pro(10) and Tyr(3) to Ile(1) strands of the inhibitor extend into the non-prime and the prime sides of the cleft, respectively. Therefore, the decapeptide inhibitor has long-range contact with the substrate-binding cleft of the protease. This mode of interaction is probably essential for the high MMP-2-selectivity of the inhibitor, because MMPs share a common architecture in the vicinity of the catalytic center but whole structures of their substrate-binding clefts have sufficient variety for the inhibitor to distinguish MMP-2 from other MMPs.

Structural basis for matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2)-selective inhibitory action of {beta}-amyloid precursor protein-derived inhibitor., Hashimoto H, Takeuchi T, Komatsu K, Miyazaki K, Sato M, Higashi S, J Biol Chem. 2011 Aug 3. PMID:21813640

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Disease

[MMP2_HUMAN] Defects in MMP2 are the cause of Torg-Winchester syndrome (TWS) [MIM:259600]; also known as multicentric osteolysis nodulosis and arthropathy (MONA). TWS is an autosomal recessive osteolysis syndrome. It is severe with generalized osteolysis and osteopenia. Subcutaneous nodules are usually absent. Torg-Winchester syndrome has been associated with a number of additional features including coarse face, corneal opacities, patches of thickened, hyperpigmented skin, hypertrichosis and gum hypertrophy. However, these features are not always present and have occasionally been observed in other osteolysis syndromes.[1][2][3] [A4_HUMAN] Defects in APP are the cause of Alzheimer disease type 1 (AD1) [MIM:104300]. AD1 is a familial early-onset form of Alzheimer disease. It can be associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Alzheimer disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive dementia, loss of cognitive abilities, and deposition of fibrillar amyloid proteins as intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles, extracellular amyloid plaques and vascular amyloid deposits. The major constituent of these plaques is the neurotoxic amyloid-beta-APP 40-42 peptide (s), derived proteolytically from the transmembrane precursor protein APP by sequential secretase processing. The cytotoxic C-terminal fragments (CTFs) and the caspase-cleaved products such as C31 derived from APP, are also implicated in neuronal death.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29] Defects in APP are the cause of cerebral amyloid angiopathy APP-related (CAA-APP) [MIM:605714]. A hereditary localized amyloidosis due to amyloid-beta A4 peptide(s) deposition in the cerebral vessels. The principal clinical characteristics are recurrent cerebral and cerebellar hemorrhages, recurrent strokes, cerebral ischemia, cerebral infarction, and progressive mental deterioration. Patients develop cerebral hemorrhage because of the severe cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Parenchymal amyloid deposits are rare and largely in the form of pre-amyloid lesions or diffuse plaque-like structures. They are Congo red negative and lack the dense amyloid cores commonly present in Alzheimer disease. Some affected individuals manifest progressive aphasic dementia, leukoencephalopathy, and occipital calcifications.[30][31][32][33][34]

Function

[MMP2_HUMAN] Ubiquitinous metalloproteinase that is involved in diverse functions such as remodeling of the vasculature, angiogenesis, tissue repair, tumor invasion, inflammation, and atherosclerotic plaque rupture. As well as degrading extracellular matrix proteins, can also act on several nonmatrix proteins such as big endothelial 1 and beta-type CGRP promoting vasoconstriction. Also cleaves KISS at a Gly-|-Leu bond. Appears to have a role in myocardial cell death pathways. Contributes to myocardial oxidative stress by regulating the activity of GSK3beta. Cleaves GSK3beta in vitro.[35][36][37][38][39][40][41] PEX, the C-terminal non-catalytic fragment of MMP2, posseses anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor properties and inhibits cell migration and cell adhesion to FGF2 and vitronectin. Ligand for integrinv/beta3 on the surface of blood vessels.[42][43][44][45][46][47][48] Isoform 2: Mediates the proteolysis of CHUK/IKKA and initiates a primary innate immune response by inducing mitochondrial-nuclear stress signaling with activation of the pro-inflammatory NF-kappaB, NFAT and IRF transcriptional pathways.[49][50][51][52][53][54][55] [A4_HUMAN] Functions as a cell surface receptor and performs physiological functions on the surface of neurons relevant to neurite growth, neuronal adhesion and axonogenesis. Involved in cell mobility and transcription regulation through protein-protein interactions. Can promote transcription activation through binding to APBB1-KAT5 and inhibits Notch signaling through interaction with Numb. Couples to apoptosis-inducing pathways such as those mediated by G(O) and JIP. Inhibits G(o) alpha ATPase activity (By similarity). Acts as a kinesin I membrane receptor, mediating the axonal transport of beta-secretase and presenilin 1. Involved in copper homeostasis/oxidative stress through copper ion reduction. In vitro, copper-metallated APP induces neuronal death directly or is potentiated through Cu(2+)-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation. Can regulate neurite outgrowth through binding to components of the extracellular matrix such as heparin and collagen I and IV. The splice isoforms that contain the BPTI domain possess protease inhibitor activity. Induces a AGER-dependent pathway that involves activation of p38 MAPK, resulting in internalization of amyloid-beta peptide and leading to mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured cortical neurons. Provides Cu(2+) ions for GPC1 which are required for release of nitric oxide (NO) and subsequent degradation of the heparan sulfate chains on GPC1.[56][57][58][59][60] Beta-amyloid peptides are lipophilic metal chelators with metal-reducing activity. Bind transient metals such as copper, zinc and iron. In vitro, can reduce Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) to Cu(+) and Fe(2+), respectively. Beta-amyloid 42 is a more effective reductant than beta-amyloid 40. Beta-amyloid peptides bind to lipoproteins and apolipoproteins E and J in the CSF and to HDL particles in plasma, inhibiting metal-catalyzed oxidation of lipoproteins. Beta-APP42 may activate mononuclear phagocytes in the brain and elicit inflammatory responses. Promotes both tau aggregation and TPK II-mediated phosphorylation. Interaction with Also bind GPC1 in lipid rafts.[61][62][63][64][65] Appicans elicit adhesion of neural cells to the extracellular matrix and may regulate neurite outgrowth in the brain (By similarity).[66][67][68][69][70] The gamma-CTF peptides as well as the caspase-cleaved peptides, including C31, are potent enhancers of neuronal apoptosis.[71][72][73][74][75] N-APP binds TNFRSF21 triggering caspase activation and degeneration of both neuronal cell bodies (via caspase-3) and axons (via caspase-6).[76][77][78][79][80]

About this Structure

3ayu is a 2 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

See Also

Reference

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  2. Zankl A, Bonafe L, Calcaterra V, Di Rocco M, Superti-Furga A. Winchester syndrome caused by a homozygous mutation affecting the active site of matrix metalloproteinase 2. Clin Genet. 2005 Mar;67(3):261-6. PMID:15691365 doi:10.1111/j.1399-0004.2004.00402.x
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  16. Farlow M, Murrell J, Ghetti B, Unverzagt F, Zeldenrust S, Benson M. Clinical characteristics in a kindred with early-onset Alzheimer's disease and their linkage to a G-->T change at position 2149 of the amyloid precursor protein gene. Neurology. 1994 Jan;44(1):105-11. PMID:8290042
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  18. Eckman CB, Mehta ND, Crook R, Perez-tur J, Prihar G, Pfeiffer E, Graff-Radford N, Hinder P, Yager D, Zenk B, Refolo LM, Prada CM, Younkin SG, Hutton M, Hardy J. A new pathogenic mutation in the APP gene (I716V) increases the relative proportion of A beta 42(43). Hum Mol Genet. 1997 Nov;6(12):2087-9. PMID:9328472
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  35. Brooks PC, Silletti S, von Schalscha TL, Friedlander M, Cheresh DA. Disruption of angiogenesis by PEX, a noncatalytic metalloproteinase fragment with integrin binding activity. Cell. 1998 Feb 6;92(3):391-400. PMID:9476898
  36. Fernandez-Patron C, Radomski MW, Davidge ST. Vascular matrix metalloproteinase-2 cleaves big endothelin-1 yielding a novel vasoconstrictor. Circ Res. 1999 Nov 12;85(10):906-11. PMID:10559137
  37. Fernandez-Patron C, Stewart KG, Zhang Y, Koivunen E, Radomski MW, Davidge ST. Vascular matrix metalloproteinase-2-dependent cleavage of calcitonin gene-related peptide promotes vasoconstriction. Circ Res. 2000 Oct 13;87(8):670-6. PMID:11029402
  38. Bello L, Lucini V, Carrabba G, Giussani C, Machluf M, Pluderi M, Nikas D, Zhang J, Tomei G, Villani RM, Carroll RS, Bikfalvi A, Black PM. Simultaneous inhibition of glioma angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and invasion by a naturally occurring fragment of human metalloproteinase-2. Cancer Res. 2001 Dec 15;61(24):8730-6. PMID:11751392
  39. Chattopadhyay N, Mitra A, Frei E, Chatterjee A. Human cervical tumor cell (SiHa) surface alphavbeta3 integrin receptor has associated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2) activity. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2001 Nov;127(11):653-8. PMID:11710594
  40. Kandasamy AD, Schulz R. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta is activated by matrix metalloproteinase-2 mediated proteolysis in cardiomyoblasts. Cardiovasc Res. 2009 Sep 1;83(4):698-706. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvp175. Epub 2009 Jun , 3. PMID:19493954 doi:10.1093/cvr/cvp175
  41. Lovett DH, Mahimkar R, Raffai RL, Cape L, Maklashina E, Cecchini G, Karliner JS. A novel intracellular isoform of matrix metalloproteinase-2 induced by oxidative stress activates innate immunity. PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e34177. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034177. Epub 2012 Apr 3. PMID:22509276 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034177
  42. Brooks PC, Silletti S, von Schalscha TL, Friedlander M, Cheresh DA. Disruption of angiogenesis by PEX, a noncatalytic metalloproteinase fragment with integrin binding activity. Cell. 1998 Feb 6;92(3):391-400. PMID:9476898
  43. Fernandez-Patron C, Radomski MW, Davidge ST. Vascular matrix metalloproteinase-2 cleaves big endothelin-1 yielding a novel vasoconstrictor. Circ Res. 1999 Nov 12;85(10):906-11. PMID:10559137
  44. Fernandez-Patron C, Stewart KG, Zhang Y, Koivunen E, Radomski MW, Davidge ST. Vascular matrix metalloproteinase-2-dependent cleavage of calcitonin gene-related peptide promotes vasoconstriction. Circ Res. 2000 Oct 13;87(8):670-6. PMID:11029402
  45. Bello L, Lucini V, Carrabba G, Giussani C, Machluf M, Pluderi M, Nikas D, Zhang J, Tomei G, Villani RM, Carroll RS, Bikfalvi A, Black PM. Simultaneous inhibition of glioma angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and invasion by a naturally occurring fragment of human metalloproteinase-2. Cancer Res. 2001 Dec 15;61(24):8730-6. PMID:11751392
  46. Chattopadhyay N, Mitra A, Frei E, Chatterjee A. Human cervical tumor cell (SiHa) surface alphavbeta3 integrin receptor has associated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2) activity. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2001 Nov;127(11):653-8. PMID:11710594
  47. Kandasamy AD, Schulz R. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta is activated by matrix metalloproteinase-2 mediated proteolysis in cardiomyoblasts. Cardiovasc Res. 2009 Sep 1;83(4):698-706. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvp175. Epub 2009 Jun , 3. PMID:19493954 doi:10.1093/cvr/cvp175
  48. Lovett DH, Mahimkar R, Raffai RL, Cape L, Maklashina E, Cecchini G, Karliner JS. A novel intracellular isoform of matrix metalloproteinase-2 induced by oxidative stress activates innate immunity. PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e34177. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034177. Epub 2012 Apr 3. PMID:22509276 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034177
  49. Brooks PC, Silletti S, von Schalscha TL, Friedlander M, Cheresh DA. Disruption of angiogenesis by PEX, a noncatalytic metalloproteinase fragment with integrin binding activity. Cell. 1998 Feb 6;92(3):391-400. PMID:9476898
  50. Fernandez-Patron C, Radomski MW, Davidge ST. Vascular matrix metalloproteinase-2 cleaves big endothelin-1 yielding a novel vasoconstrictor. Circ Res. 1999 Nov 12;85(10):906-11. PMID:10559137
  51. Fernandez-Patron C, Stewart KG, Zhang Y, Koivunen E, Radomski MW, Davidge ST. Vascular matrix metalloproteinase-2-dependent cleavage of calcitonin gene-related peptide promotes vasoconstriction. Circ Res. 2000 Oct 13;87(8):670-6. PMID:11029402
  52. Bello L, Lucini V, Carrabba G, Giussani C, Machluf M, Pluderi M, Nikas D, Zhang J, Tomei G, Villani RM, Carroll RS, Bikfalvi A, Black PM. Simultaneous inhibition of glioma angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and invasion by a naturally occurring fragment of human metalloproteinase-2. Cancer Res. 2001 Dec 15;61(24):8730-6. PMID:11751392
  53. Chattopadhyay N, Mitra A, Frei E, Chatterjee A. Human cervical tumor cell (SiHa) surface alphavbeta3 integrin receptor has associated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2) activity. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2001 Nov;127(11):653-8. PMID:11710594
  54. Kandasamy AD, Schulz R. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta is activated by matrix metalloproteinase-2 mediated proteolysis in cardiomyoblasts. Cardiovasc Res. 2009 Sep 1;83(4):698-706. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvp175. Epub 2009 Jun , 3. PMID:19493954 doi:10.1093/cvr/cvp175
  55. Lovett DH, Mahimkar R, Raffai RL, Cape L, Maklashina E, Cecchini G, Karliner JS. A novel intracellular isoform of matrix metalloproteinase-2 induced by oxidative stress activates innate immunity. PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e34177. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034177. Epub 2012 Apr 3. PMID:22509276 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034177
  56. Walter MF, Mason PE, Mason RP. Alzheimer's disease amyloid beta peptide 25-35 inhibits lipid peroxidation as a result of its membrane interactions. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997 Apr 28;233(3):760-4. PMID:9168929 doi:10.1006/bbrc.1997.6547
  57. Kimberly WT, Zheng JB, Guenette SY, Selkoe DJ. The intracellular domain of the beta-amyloid precursor protein is stabilized by Fe65 and translocates to the nucleus in a notch-like manner. J Biol Chem. 2001 Oct 26;276(43):40288-92. Epub 2001 Sep 5. PMID:11544248 doi:10.1074/jbc.C100447200
  58. Rank KB, Pauley AM, Bhattacharya K, Wang Z, Evans DB, Fleck TJ, Johnston JA, Sharma SK. Direct interaction of soluble human recombinant tau protein with Abeta 1-42 results in tau aggregation and hyperphosphorylation by tau protein kinase II. FEBS Lett. 2002 Mar 13;514(2-3):263-8. PMID:11943163
  59. Nikolaev A, McLaughlin T, O'Leary DD, Tessier-Lavigne M. APP binds DR6 to trigger axon pruning and neuron death via distinct caspases. Nature. 2009 Feb 19;457(7232):981-9. PMID:19225519 doi:10.1038/nature07767
  60. Takuma K, Fang F, Zhang W, Yan S, Fukuzaki E, Du H, Sosunov A, McKhann G, Funatsu Y, Nakamichi N, Nagai T, Mizoguchi H, Ibi D, Hori O, Ogawa S, Stern DM, Yamada K, Yan SS. RAGE-mediated signaling contributes to intraneuronal transport of amyloid-beta and neuronal dysfunction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Nov 24;106(47):20021-6. doi:, 10.1073/pnas.0905686106. Epub 2009 Nov 9. PMID:19901339 doi:10.1073/pnas.0905686106
  61. Walter MF, Mason PE, Mason RP. Alzheimer's disease amyloid beta peptide 25-35 inhibits lipid peroxidation as a result of its membrane interactions. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997 Apr 28;233(3):760-4. PMID:9168929 doi:10.1006/bbrc.1997.6547
  62. Kimberly WT, Zheng JB, Guenette SY, Selkoe DJ. The intracellular domain of the beta-amyloid precursor protein is stabilized by Fe65 and translocates to the nucleus in a notch-like manner. J Biol Chem. 2001 Oct 26;276(43):40288-92. Epub 2001 Sep 5. PMID:11544248 doi:10.1074/jbc.C100447200
  63. Rank KB, Pauley AM, Bhattacharya K, Wang Z, Evans DB, Fleck TJ, Johnston JA, Sharma SK. Direct interaction of soluble human recombinant tau protein with Abeta 1-42 results in tau aggregation and hyperphosphorylation by tau protein kinase II. FEBS Lett. 2002 Mar 13;514(2-3):263-8. PMID:11943163
  64. Nikolaev A, McLaughlin T, O'Leary DD, Tessier-Lavigne M. APP binds DR6 to trigger axon pruning and neuron death via distinct caspases. Nature. 2009 Feb 19;457(7232):981-9. PMID:19225519 doi:10.1038/nature07767
  65. Takuma K, Fang F, Zhang W, Yan S, Fukuzaki E, Du H, Sosunov A, McKhann G, Funatsu Y, Nakamichi N, Nagai T, Mizoguchi H, Ibi D, Hori O, Ogawa S, Stern DM, Yamada K, Yan SS. RAGE-mediated signaling contributes to intraneuronal transport of amyloid-beta and neuronal dysfunction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Nov 24;106(47):20021-6. doi:, 10.1073/pnas.0905686106. Epub 2009 Nov 9. PMID:19901339 doi:10.1073/pnas.0905686106
  66. Walter MF, Mason PE, Mason RP. Alzheimer's disease amyloid beta peptide 25-35 inhibits lipid peroxidation as a result of its membrane interactions. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997 Apr 28;233(3):760-4. PMID:9168929 doi:10.1006/bbrc.1997.6547
  67. Kimberly WT, Zheng JB, Guenette SY, Selkoe DJ. The intracellular domain of the beta-amyloid precursor protein is stabilized by Fe65 and translocates to the nucleus in a notch-like manner. J Biol Chem. 2001 Oct 26;276(43):40288-92. Epub 2001 Sep 5. PMID:11544248 doi:10.1074/jbc.C100447200
  68. Rank KB, Pauley AM, Bhattacharya K, Wang Z, Evans DB, Fleck TJ, Johnston JA, Sharma SK. Direct interaction of soluble human recombinant tau protein with Abeta 1-42 results in tau aggregation and hyperphosphorylation by tau protein kinase II. FEBS Lett. 2002 Mar 13;514(2-3):263-8. PMID:11943163
  69. Nikolaev A, McLaughlin T, O'Leary DD, Tessier-Lavigne M. APP binds DR6 to trigger axon pruning and neuron death via distinct caspases. Nature. 2009 Feb 19;457(7232):981-9. PMID:19225519 doi:10.1038/nature07767
  70. Takuma K, Fang F, Zhang W, Yan S, Fukuzaki E, Du H, Sosunov A, McKhann G, Funatsu Y, Nakamichi N, Nagai T, Mizoguchi H, Ibi D, Hori O, Ogawa S, Stern DM, Yamada K, Yan SS. RAGE-mediated signaling contributes to intraneuronal transport of amyloid-beta and neuronal dysfunction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Nov 24;106(47):20021-6. doi:, 10.1073/pnas.0905686106. Epub 2009 Nov 9. PMID:19901339 doi:10.1073/pnas.0905686106
  71. Walter MF, Mason PE, Mason RP. Alzheimer's disease amyloid beta peptide 25-35 inhibits lipid peroxidation as a result of its membrane interactions. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997 Apr 28;233(3):760-4. PMID:9168929 doi:10.1006/bbrc.1997.6547
  72. Kimberly WT, Zheng JB, Guenette SY, Selkoe DJ. The intracellular domain of the beta-amyloid precursor protein is stabilized by Fe65 and translocates to the nucleus in a notch-like manner. J Biol Chem. 2001 Oct 26;276(43):40288-92. Epub 2001 Sep 5. PMID:11544248 doi:10.1074/jbc.C100447200
  73. Rank KB, Pauley AM, Bhattacharya K, Wang Z, Evans DB, Fleck TJ, Johnston JA, Sharma SK. Direct interaction of soluble human recombinant tau protein with Abeta 1-42 results in tau aggregation and hyperphosphorylation by tau protein kinase II. FEBS Lett. 2002 Mar 13;514(2-3):263-8. PMID:11943163
  74. Nikolaev A, McLaughlin T, O'Leary DD, Tessier-Lavigne M. APP binds DR6 to trigger axon pruning and neuron death via distinct caspases. Nature. 2009 Feb 19;457(7232):981-9. PMID:19225519 doi:10.1038/nature07767
  75. Takuma K, Fang F, Zhang W, Yan S, Fukuzaki E, Du H, Sosunov A, McKhann G, Funatsu Y, Nakamichi N, Nagai T, Mizoguchi H, Ibi D, Hori O, Ogawa S, Stern DM, Yamada K, Yan SS. RAGE-mediated signaling contributes to intraneuronal transport of amyloid-beta and neuronal dysfunction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Nov 24;106(47):20021-6. doi:, 10.1073/pnas.0905686106. Epub 2009 Nov 9. PMID:19901339 doi:10.1073/pnas.0905686106
  76. Walter MF, Mason PE, Mason RP. Alzheimer's disease amyloid beta peptide 25-35 inhibits lipid peroxidation as a result of its membrane interactions. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997 Apr 28;233(3):760-4. PMID:9168929 doi:10.1006/bbrc.1997.6547
  77. Kimberly WT, Zheng JB, Guenette SY, Selkoe DJ. The intracellular domain of the beta-amyloid precursor protein is stabilized by Fe65 and translocates to the nucleus in a notch-like manner. J Biol Chem. 2001 Oct 26;276(43):40288-92. Epub 2001 Sep 5. PMID:11544248 doi:10.1074/jbc.C100447200
  78. Rank KB, Pauley AM, Bhattacharya K, Wang Z, Evans DB, Fleck TJ, Johnston JA, Sharma SK. Direct interaction of soluble human recombinant tau protein with Abeta 1-42 results in tau aggregation and hyperphosphorylation by tau protein kinase II. FEBS Lett. 2002 Mar 13;514(2-3):263-8. PMID:11943163
  79. Nikolaev A, McLaughlin T, O'Leary DD, Tessier-Lavigne M. APP binds DR6 to trigger axon pruning and neuron death via distinct caspases. Nature. 2009 Feb 19;457(7232):981-9. PMID:19225519 doi:10.1038/nature07767
  80. Takuma K, Fang F, Zhang W, Yan S, Fukuzaki E, Du H, Sosunov A, McKhann G, Funatsu Y, Nakamichi N, Nagai T, Mizoguchi H, Ibi D, Hori O, Ogawa S, Stern DM, Yamada K, Yan SS. RAGE-mediated signaling contributes to intraneuronal transport of amyloid-beta and neuronal dysfunction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Nov 24;106(47):20021-6. doi:, 10.1073/pnas.0905686106. Epub 2009 Nov 9. PMID:19901339 doi:10.1073/pnas.0905686106

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