Crystal structure of the VEGFR2 kinase domain in complex with a naphthamide inhibitor
[VGFR2_HUMAN] Defects in KDR are associated with susceptibility to hemangioma capillary infantile (HCI) [MIM:602089]. HCI are benign, highly proliferative lesions involving aberrant localized growth of capillary endothelium. They are the most common tumor of infancy, occurring in up to 10% of all births. Hemangiomas tend to appear shortly after birth and show rapid neonatal growth for up to 12 months characterized by endothelial hypercellularity and increased numbers of mast cells. This phase is followed by slow involution at a rate of about 10% per year and replacement by fibrofatty stroma.  Note=Plays a major role in tumor angiogenesis. In case of HIV-1 infection, the interaction with extracellular viral Tat protein seems to enhance angiogenesis in Kaposi's sarcoma lesions.
[VGFR2_HUMAN] Tyrosine-protein kinase that acts as a cell-surface receptor for VEGFA, VEGFC and VEGFD. Plays an essential role in the regulation of angiogenesis, vascular development, vascular permeability, and embryonic hematopoiesis. Promotes proliferation, survival, migration and differentiation of endothelial cells. Promotes reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Isoforms lacking a transmembrane domain, such as isoform 2 and isoform 3, may function as decoy receptors for VEGFA, VEGFC and/or VEGFD. Isoform 2 plays an important role as negative regulator of VEGFA- and VEGFC-mediated lymphangiogenesis by limiting the amount of free VEGFA and/or VEGFC and preventing their binding to FLT4. Modulates FLT1 and FLT4 signaling by forming heterodimers. Binding of vascular growth factors to isoform 1 leads to the activation of several signaling cascades. Activation of PLCG1 leads to the production of the cellular signaling molecules diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and the activation of protein kinase C. Mediates activation of MAPK1/ERK2, MAPK3/ERK1 and the MAP kinase signaling pathway, as well as of the AKT1 signaling pathway. Mediates phosphorylation of PIK3R1, the regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and activation of PTK2/FAK1. Required for VEGFA-mediated induction of NOS2 and NOS3, leading to the production of the signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) by endothelial cells. Phosphorylates PLCG1. Promotes phosphorylation of FYN, NCK1, NOS3, PIK3R1, PTK2/FAK1 and SRC.                     
Publication Abstract from PubMed
We have previously shown N-arylnaphthamides can be potent inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs). N-Alkyl and N-unsubstituted naphthamides were prepared and found to yield nanomolar inhibitors of VEGFR-2 (KDR) with an improved selectivity profile against a panel of tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases. The inhibitory activity of this series was retained at the cellular level. Naphthamides 3, 20, and 22 exhibited good pharmacokinetics following oral dosing and showed potent inhibition of VEGF-induced angiogenesis in the rat corneal model. Once-daily oral administration of 22 for 14 days led to 85% inhibition of established HT29 colon cancer and Calu-6 lung cancer xenografts at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg, respectively.
Evaluation of a series of naphthamides as potent, orally active vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors.,Weiss MM, Harmange JC, Polverino AJ, Bauer D, Berry L, Berry V, Borg G, Bready J, Chen D, Choquette D, Coxon A, Demelfi T, Doerr N, Estrada J, Flynn J, Graceffa RF, Harriman SP, Kaufman S, La DS, Long A, Neervannan S, Patel VF, Potashman M, Regal K, Roveto PM, Schrag ML, Starnes C, Tasker A, Teffera Y, Whittington DA, Zanon R J Med Chem. 2008 Mar 27;51(6):1668-80. Epub 2008 Mar 7. PMID:18324759
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