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3b9l, resolution 2.60Å ()
Ligands: ,
Related: 3b9m
Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


Human serum albumin complexed with myristate and AZT

Publication Abstract from PubMed

3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) is the first clinically effective drug for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection. The drug interaction with human serum albumin (HSA) has been an important component in understanding its mechanism of action, especially in drug distribution and in drug-drug interaction on HSA in the case of multi-drug therapy. We present here crystal structures of a ternary HSA-Myr-AZT complex and a quaternary HSA-Myr-AZT-SAL complex (Myr, myristate; SAL, salicylic acid). From this study, a new drug binding subsite on HSA Sudlow site 1 was identified. The presence of fatty acid is needed for the creation of this subsite due to fatty acid induced conformational changes of HSA. Thus, the Sudlow site 1 of HSA can be divided into three non-overlapped subsites: a SAL subsite, an indomethacin subsite and an AZT subsite. Binding of a drug to HSA often influences simultaneous binding of other drugs. From the HSA-Myr-AZT-SAL complex structure, we observed the coexistence of two drugs (AZT and SAL) in Sudlow site 1 and the competition between these two drugs in subdomain IB. These results provide new structural information on HSA-drug interaction and drug-drug interaction on HSA.

A new drug binding subsite on human serum albumin and drug-drug interaction studied by X-ray crystallography., Zhu L, Yang F, Chen L, Meehan EJ, Huang M, J Struct Biol. 2008 Apr;162(1):40-9. Epub 2007 Dec 28. PMID:18258455

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.


[ALBU_HUMAN] Defects in ALB are a cause of familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia (FDH) [MIM:103600]. FDH is a form of euthyroid hyperthyroxinemia that is due to increased affinity of ALB for T(4). It is the most common cause of inherited euthyroid hyperthyroxinemia in Caucasian population.[1][2][3][4]


[ALBU_HUMAN] Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.[5]

About this Structure

3b9l is a 1 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

See Also


  • Zhu L, Yang F, Chen L, Meehan EJ, Huang M. A new drug binding subsite on human serum albumin and drug-drug interaction studied by X-ray crystallography. J Struct Biol. 2008 Apr;162(1):40-9. Epub 2007 Dec 28. PMID:18258455 doi:10.1016/j.jsb.2007.12.004
  • He XM, Carter DC. Atomic structure and chemistry of human serum albumin. Nature. 1992 Jul 16;358(6383):209-15. PMID:1630489 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/358209a0
  • Ghuman J, Zunszain PA, Petitpas I, Bhattacharya AA, Otagiri M, Curry S. Structural basis of the drug-binding specificity of human serum albumin. J Mol Biol. 2005 Oct 14;353(1):38-52. PMID:16169013 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2005.07.075
  • Yang F, Bian C, Zhu L, Zhao G, Huang Z, Huang M. Effect of human serum albumin on drug metabolism: structural evidence of esterase activity of human serum albumin. J Struct Biol. 2007 Feb;157(2):348-55. Epub 2006 Sep 9. PMID:17067818 doi:10.1016/j.jsb.2006.08.015
  1. Sunthornthepvarakul T, Angkeow P, Weiss RE, Hayashi Y, Refetoff S. An identical missense mutation in the albumin gene results in familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia in 8 unrelated families. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994 Jul 29;202(2):781-7. PMID:8048949
  2. Rushbrook JI, Becker E, Schussler GC, Divino CM. Identification of a human serum albumin species associated with familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995 Feb;80(2):461-7. PMID:7852505
  3. Wada N, Chiba H, Shimizu C, Kijima H, Kubo M, Koike T. A novel missense mutation in codon 218 of the albumin gene in a distinct phenotype of familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia in a Japanese kindred. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Oct;82(10):3246-50. PMID:9329347
  4. Sunthornthepvarakul T, Likitmaskul S, Ngowngarmratana S, Angsusingha K, Kitvitayasak S, Scherberg NH, Refetoff S. Familial dysalbuminemic hypertriiodothyroninemia: a new, dominantly inherited albumin defect. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 May;83(5):1448-54. PMID:9589637
  5. Lu J, Stewart AJ, Sadler PJ, Pinheiro TJ, Blindauer CA. Albumin as a zinc carrier: properties of its high-affinity zinc-binding site. Biochem Soc Trans. 2008 Dec;36(Pt 6):1317-21. doi: 10.1042/BST0361317. PMID:19021548 doi:10.1042/BST0361317

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