[CSKP_HUMAN] Defects in CASK are the cause of mental retardation and microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH) [MIM:300749]. A disorder characterized by significantly below average general intellectual functioning associated with impairments in adaptative behavior and manifested during the developmental period. Patients with mental retardation X-linked CASK-related can manifest a severe phenotype consisting of severe intellectual deficit, congenital or postnatal microcephaly, disproportionate brainstem and cerebellar hypoplasia. A milder phenotype consists of mental retardation alone or associated with nystagmus. Defects in CASK are the cause of FG syndrome type 4 (FGS4) [MIM:300422]. FG syndrome (FGS) is an X-linked disorder characterized by mental retardation, relative macrocephaly, hypotonia and constipation.
[CSKP_HUMAN] Multidomain scaffolding protein with a role in synaptic transmembrane protein anchoring and ion channel trafficking. Contributes to neural development and regulation of gene expression via interaction with the transcription factor TRB1. Binds to cell-surface proteins, including amyloid precursor protein, neurexins and syndecans. May mediate a link between the extracellular matrix and the actin cytoskeleton via its interaction with syndecan and with the actin/spectrin-binding protein 4.1.
CASK is a unique MAGUK protein that contains an N-terminal CaM-kinase domain besides the typical MAGUK domains. The CASK CaM-kinase domain is presumed to be a catalytically inactive pseudokinase because it lacks the canonical DFG motif required for Mg2+ binding that is thought to be indispensable for kinase activity. Here we show, however, that CASK functions as an active protein kinase even without Mg2+ binding. High-resolution crystal structures reveal that the CASK CaM-kinase domain adopts a constitutively active conformation that binds ATP and catalyzes phosphotransfer without Mg2+. The CASK CaM-kinase domain phosphorylates itself and at least one physiological interactor, the synaptic protein neurexin-1, to which CASK is recruited via its PDZ domain. Thus, our data indicate that CASK combines the scaffolding activity of MAGUKs with an unusual kinase activity that phosphorylates substrates recuited by the scaffolding activity. Moreover, our study suggests that other pseudokinases (10% of the kinome) could also be catalytically active.
CASK Functions as a Mg2+-independent neurexin kinase.,Mukherjee K, Sharma M, Urlaub H, Bourenkov GP, Jahn R, Sudhof TC, Wahl MC Cell. 2008 Apr 18;133(2):328-39. PMID:18423203
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
↑ Najm J, Horn D, Wimplinger I, Golden JA, Chizhikov VV, Sudi J, Christian SL, Ullmann R, Kuechler A, Haas CA, Flubacher A, Charnas LR, Uyanik G, Frank U, Klopocki E, Dobyns WB, Kutsche K. Mutations of CASK cause an X-linked brain malformation phenotype with microcephaly and hypoplasia of the brainstem and cerebellum. Nat Genet. 2008 Sep;40(9):1065-7. doi: 10.1038/ng.194. PMID:19165920 doi:10.1038/ng.194
↑ Piluso G, D'Amico F, Saccone V, Bismuto E, Rotundo IL, Di Domenico M, Aurino S, Schwartz CE, Neri G, Nigro V. A missense mutation in CASK causes FG syndrome in an Italian family. Am J Hum Genet. 2009 Feb;84(2):162-77. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.12.018. Epub 2009, Feb 5. PMID:19200522 doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.12.018
↑ Mukherjee K, Sharma M, Urlaub H, Bourenkov GP, Jahn R, Sudhof TC, Wahl MC. CASK Functions as a Mg2+-independent neurexin kinase. Cell. 2008 Apr 18;133(2):328-39. PMID:18423203 doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.02.036