Crystal structure of the complex of human interleukin-7 with glycosylated human interleukin-7 receptor alpha ectodomain
[IL7RA_HUMAN] Defects in IL7R are a cause of severe combined immunodeficiency autosomal recessive T-cell-negative/B-cell-positive/NK-cell-positive (T(-)B(+)NK(+) SCID) [MIM:608971]. A form of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. Patients present in infancy recurrent, persistent infections by opportunistic organisms. The common characteristic of all types of SCID is absence of T-cell-mediated cellular immunity due to a defect in T-cell development. [:]   Genetic variations in IL7R are a cause of susceptibility to multiple sclerosis type 3 (MS3) [MIM:612595]. A multifactorial, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Sclerotic lesions are characterized by perivascular infiltration of monocytes and lymphocytes and appear as indurated areas in pathologic specimens (sclerosis in plaques). The pathological mechanism is regarded as an autoimmune attack of the myelin sheat, mediated by both cellular and humoral immunity. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia and bladder dysfunction. Genetic and environmental factors influence susceptibility to the disease. Note=A polymorphism at position 244 strongly influences susceptibility to multiple sclerosis. Overtransmission of the major 'C' allele coding for Thr-244 is detected in offspring affected with multiple sclerosis. In vitro analysis of transcripts from minigenes containing either 'C' allele (Thr-244) or 'T' allele (Ile-244) shows that the 'C' allele results in an approximately two-fold increase in the skipping of exon 6, leading to increased production of a soluble form of IL7R. Thus, the multiple sclerosis associated 'C' risk allele of IL7R would probably decrease membrane-bound expression of IL7R. As this risk allele is common in the general population, some additional triggers are probably required for the development and progression of MS.
[IL7_HUMAN] Hematopoietic growth factor capable of stimulating the proliferation of lymphoid progenitors. It is important for proliferation during certain stages of B-cell maturation. [IL7RA_HUMAN] Receptor for interleukin-7. Also acts as a receptor for thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP).
Publication Abstract from PubMed
IL-7 and IL-7Ralpha bind the gamma(c) receptor, forming a complex crucial to several signaling cascades leading to the development and homeostasis of T and B cells. We report that the IL-7Ralpha ectodomain uses glycosylation to modulate its binding constants to IL-7, unlike the other receptors in the gamma(c) family. IL-7 binds glycosylated IL-7Ralpha 300-fold more tightly than unglycosylated IL-7Ralpha, and the enhanced affinity is attributed primarily to an accelerated on rate. Structural comparison of IL-7 in complex to both forms of IL-7Ralpha reveals that glycosylation does not participate directly in the binding interface. The SCID mutations of IL-7Ralpha locate outside the binding interface with IL-7, suggesting that the expressed mutations cause protein folding defects in IL-7Ralpha. The IL-7/IL-7Ralpha structures provide a window into the molecular recognition events of the IL-7 signaling cascade and provide sites to target for designing new therapeutics to treat IL-7-related diseases.
Structural and biophysical studies of the human IL-7/IL-7Ralpha complex.,McElroy CA, Dohm JA, Walsh ST Structure. 2009 Jan 14;17(1):54-65. PMID:19141282
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.