c-terminal beta-catenin bound TIP-1 structure
[CTNB1_HUMAN] Defects in CTNNB1 are associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) [MIM:114500]. Note=Activating mutations in CTNNB1 have oncogenic activity resulting in tumor development. Somatic mutations are found in various tumor types, including colon cancers, ovarian and prostate carcinomas, hepatoblastoma (HB), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HBs are malignant embryonal tumors mainly affecting young children in the first three years of life. Defects in CTNNB1 are a cause of pilomatrixoma (PTR) [MIM:132600]; a common benign skin tumor.   Defects in CTNNB1 are a cause of medulloblastoma (MDB) [MIM:155255]. MDB is a malignant, invasive embryonal tumor of the cerebellum with a preferential manifestation in children.  Defects in CTNNB1 are a cause of susceptibility to ovarian cancer (OC) [MIM:167000]. Ovarian cancer common malignancy originating from ovarian tissue. Although many histologic types of ovarian neoplasms have been described, epithelial ovarian carcinoma is the most common form. Ovarian cancers are often asymptomatic and the recognized signs and symptoms, even of late-stage disease, are vague. Consequently, most patients are diagnosed with advanced disease. Note=A chromosomal aberration involving CTNNB1 is found in salivary gland pleiomorphic adenomas, the most common benign epithelial tumors of the salivary gland. Translocation t(3;8)(p21;q12) with PLAG1. Defects in CTNNB1 may be a cause of mesothelioma malignant (MESOM) [MIM:156240]. An aggressive neoplasm of the serosal lining of the chest. It appears as broad sheets of cells, with some regions containing spindle-shaped, sarcoma-like cells and other regions showing adenomatous patterns. Pleural mesotheliomas have been linked to exposure to asbestos.
[TX1B3_MOUSE] May regulate a number of protein-protein interactions by competing for PDZ domain binding sites. Binds CTNNB1 and may thereby act as an inhibitor of the Wnt signaling pathway. Competes with LIN7A for KCNJ4 binding, and thereby promotes KCNJ4 internalization. May play a role in the Rho signaling pathway (By similarity). [CTNB1_HUMAN] Key downstream component of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. In the absence of Wnt, forms a complex with AXIN1, AXIN2, APC, CSNK1A1 and GSK3B that promotes phosphorylation on N-terminal Ser and Thr residues and ubiquitination of CTNNB1 via BTRC and its subsequent degradation by the proteasome. In the presence of Wnt ligand, CTNNB1 is not ubiquitinated and accumulates in the nucleus, where it acts as a coactivator for transcription factors of the TCF/LEF family, leading to activate Wnt responsive genes. Involved in the regulation of cell adhesion. Acts as a negative regulator of centrosome cohesion. Involved in the CDK2/PTPN6/CTNNB1/CEACAM1 pathway of insulin internalization. Blocks anoikis of malignant kidney and intestinal epithelial cells and promotes their anchorage-independent growth by down-regulating DAPK2.   
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Tax-interacting protein-1 (TIP-1) is an unusual signaling protein, containing a single PDZ domain. TIP-1 is able to bind beta-catenin with high affinity and thus inhibit its transcriptional activity. The high-resolution crystal structure of TIP-1 in complex with the C-terminal peptide of beta-catenin provides molecular details for the recognition of beta-catenin by TIP-1. Moreover, structural comparison of peptide-free and peptide-bound TIP-1 reveals that significant conformational changes are required in the betaB-betaC loop region of TIP-1 to avoid clashes with the incoming C-terminal beta-catenin peptide. Such conformational changes have not been observed in other structures of PDZ domains. In addition to the canonical peptide-binding pocket of the PDZ domain, TIP-1 can form a binding cavity to anchor more amino acids through a conserved hydrophobic residue pair (Trp776 of beta-catenin and Pro45 of TIP-1). Structural and biochemical data indicate that the canonical binding pocket together with the hydrophobic residue pair are presumably the major cause of the significantly higher affinity of the beta-catenin C-terminal to TIP-1 than to other PDZ domains, providing a unique binding specificity. Our results reveal the molecular mechanism of TIP-1 as an antagonist in PDZ domain signaling.
Structural basis of beta-catenin recognition by Tax-interacting protein-1.,Zhang J, Yan X, Shi C, Yang X, Guo Y, Tian C, Long J, Shen Y J Mol Biol. 2008 Dec 5;384(1):255-63. Epub 2008 Sep 21. PMID:18835279
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.