|3epz, resolution 2.31Å ()|
|Ligands:||, , ,|
|Gene:||AIM, CXX9, CXXC9, DNMT, DNMT1 (Homo sapiens)|
Structure of the replication foci-targeting sequence of human DNA cytosine methyltransferase DNMT1
Dnmt1 (DNA methyltransferase 1) is the principal enzyme responsible for maintenance of cytosine methylation at CpG dinucleotides in the mammalian genome. The N-terminal replication focus targeting sequence (RFTS) domain of Dnmt1 has been implicated in subcellular localization, protein association, and catalytic function. However, progress in understanding its function has been limited by the lack of assays for and a structure of this domain. Here, we show that the naked DNA- and polynucleosome-binding activities of Dnmt1 are inhibited by the RFTS domain, which functions by virtue of binding the catalytic domain to the exclusion of DNA. Kinetic analysis with a fluorogenic DNA substrate established the RFTS domain as a 600-fold inhibitor of Dnmt1 enzymatic activity. The crystal structure of the RFTS domain reveals a novel fold and supports a mechanism in which an RFTS-targeted Dnmt1-binding protein, such as Uhrf1, may activate Dnmt1 for DNA binding.
The replication focus targeting sequence (RFTS) domain is a DNA-competitive inhibitor of Dnmt1., Syeda F, Fagan RL, Wean M, Avvakumov GV, Walker JR, Xue S, Dhe-Paganon S, Brenner C, J Biol Chem. 2011 Apr 29;286(17):15344-51. Epub 2011 Mar 9. PMID:21389349
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
[DNMT1_HUMAN] Defects in DNMT1 are the cause of hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1E (HSN1E) [MIM:614116]. A neurodegenerative disorder characterized by adult onset of progressive peripheral sensory loss associated with progressive hearing impairment and early-onset dementia.
[DNMT1_HUMAN] Methylates CpG residues. Preferentially methylates hemimethylated DNA. Associates with DNA replication sites in S phase maintaining the methylation pattern in the newly synthesized strand, that is essential for epigenetic inheritance. Associates with chromatin during G2 and M phases to maintain DNA methylation independently of replication. It is responsible for maintaining methylation patterns established in development. DNA methylation is coordinated with methylation of histones. Mediates transcriptional repression by direct binding to HDAC2. In association with DNMT3B and via the recruitment of CTCFL/BORIS, involved in activation of BAG1 gene expression by modulating dimethylation of promoter histone H3 at H3K4 and H3K9.
About this Structure
- Syeda F, Fagan RL, Wean M, Avvakumov GV, Walker JR, Xue S, Dhe-Paganon S, Brenner C. The replication focus targeting sequence (RFTS) domain is a DNA-competitive inhibitor of Dnmt1. J Biol Chem. 2011 Apr 29;286(17):15344-51. Epub 2011 Mar 9. PMID:21389349 doi:10.1074/jbc.M110.209882
- ↑ Klein CJ, Botuyan MV, Wu Y, Ward CJ, Nicholson GA, Hammans S, Hojo K, Yamanishi H, Karpf AR, Wallace DC, Simon M, Lander C, Boardman LA, Cunningham JM, Smith GE, Litchy WJ, Boes B, Atkinson EJ, Middha S, B Dyck PJ, Parisi JE, Mer G, Smith DI, Dyck PJ. Mutations in DNMT1 cause hereditary sensory neuropathy with dementia and hearing loss. Nat Genet. 2011 Jun;43(6):595-600. Epub 2011 May 1. PMID:21532572 doi:10.1038/ng.830
- ↑ Vire E, Brenner C, Deplus R, Blanchon L, Fraga M, Didelot C, Morey L, Van Eynde A, Bernard D, Vanderwinden JM, Bollen M, Esteller M, Di Croce L, de Launoit Y, Fuks F. The Polycomb group protein EZH2 directly controls DNA methylation. Nature. 2006 Feb 16;439(7078):871-4. Epub 2005 Dec 14. PMID:16357870 doi:10.1038/nature04431
- ↑ Pradhan M, Esteve PO, Chin HG, Samaranayke M, Kim GD, Pradhan S. CXXC domain of human DNMT1 is essential for enzymatic activity. Biochemistry. 2008 Sep 23;47(38):10000-9. doi: 10.1021/bi8011725. Epub 2008 Aug, 29. PMID:18754681 doi:10.1021/bi8011725
- ↑ Sun L, Huang L, Nguyen P, Bisht KS, Bar-Sela G, Ho AS, Bradbury CM, Yu W, Cui H, Lee S, Trepel JB, Feinberg AP, Gius D. DNA methyltransferase 1 and 3B activate BAG-1 expression via recruitment of CTCFL/BORIS and modulation of promoter histone methylation. Cancer Res. 2008 Apr 15;68(8):2726-35. PMID:18413740 doi:68/8/2726