From Proteopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
3esn, resolution 1.35Å ()
Gene: PALB, Transthyretin, TTR (Homo sapiens)
Related: 3eso, 3esp
Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


Human transthyretin (TTR) complexed with N-(3,5-Dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,6-dimethylbenzamide

Publication Abstract from PubMed

Transthyretin (TTR) amyloidogenesis inhibitors are typically composed of two aromatic rings and a linker. We have previously established optimal structures for one aromatic ring and the linker. Herein, we employ a suboptimal linker and an optimal aryl-X substructure to rank order the desirability of aryl-Z substructuresusing a library of 56 N-(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)benzamides. Coconsideration of amyloid inhibition potency and ex vivo plasma TTR binding selectivity data reveal that 2,6, 2,5, 2, 3,4,5, and 3,5 substituted aryls bearing small substituents generate the most potent and selective inhibitors, in descending order. These benzamides generally lack undesirable thyroid hormone receptor binding and COX-1 inhibition activity. Three high-resolution TTR.inhibitor crystal structures (1.31-1.35 A) provide insight into why these inhibitors are potent and selective, enabling future structure-based design of TTR kinetic stabilizers.

Toward Optimization of the Second Aryl Substructure Common to Transthyretin Amyloidogenesis Inhibitors Using Biochemical and Structural Studies (dagger)., Johnson SM, Connelly S, Wilson IA, Kelly JW, J Med Chem. 2009 Feb 3. PMID:19191553

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.


[TTHY_HUMAN] Defects in TTR are the cause of amyloidosis transthyretin-related (AMYL-TTR) [MIM:105210]. A hereditary generalized amyloidosis due to transthyretin amyloid deposition. Protein fibrils can form in different tissues leading to amyloid polyneuropathies, amyloidotic cardiomyopathy, carpal tunnel syndrome, systemic senile amyloidosis. The disease includes leptomeningeal amyloidosis that is characterized by primary involvement of the central nervous system. Neuropathologic examination shows amyloid in the walls of leptomeningeal vessels, in pia arachnoid, and subpial deposits. Some patients also develop vitreous amyloid deposition that leads to visual impairment (oculoleptomeningeal amyloidosis). Clinical features include seizures, stroke-like episodes, dementia, psychomotor deterioration, variable amyloid deposition in the vitreous humor.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70][71][72] Defects in TTR are a cause of hyperthyroxinemia dystransthyretinemic euthyroidal (HTDE) [MIM:145680]. It is a condition characterized by elevation of total and free thyroxine in healthy, euthyroid persons without detectable binding protein abnormalities.[73] Defects in TTR are a cause of carpal tunnel syndrome type 1 (CTS1) [MIM:115430]. It is a condition characterized by entrapment of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel. Symptoms include burning pain and paresthesias involving the ventral surface of the hand and fingers which may radiate proximally. Impairment of sensation in the distribution of the median nerve and thenar muscle atrophy may occur. This condition may be associated with repetitive occupational trauma, wrist injuries, amyloid neuropathies, rheumatoid arthritis.[74]


[TTHY_HUMAN] Thyroid hormone-binding protein. Probably transports thyroxine from the bloodstream to the brain.[75]

About this Structure

3esn is a 2 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

See Also


  • Johnson SM, Connelly S, Wilson IA, Kelly JW. Toward Optimization of the Second Aryl Substructure Common to Transthyretin Amyloidogenesis Inhibitors Using Biochemical and Structural Studies (dagger). J Med Chem. 2009 Feb 3. PMID:19191553 doi:10.1021/jm801347s
  1. Sebastiao MP, Lamzin V, Saraiva MJ, Damas AM. Transthyretin stability as a key factor in amyloidogenesis: X-ray analysis at atomic resolution. J Mol Biol. 2001 Mar 2;306(4):733-44. PMID:11243784 doi:10.1006/jmbi.2000.4415
  2. Neto-Silva RM, Macedo-Ribeiro S, Pereira PJ, Coll M, Saraiva MJ, Damas AM. X-ray crystallographic studies of two transthyretin variants: further insights into amyloidogenesis. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2005 Mar;61(Pt 3):333-9. Epub 2005, Feb 24. PMID:15735344 doi:10.1107/S0907444904034316
  3. Ruiz-Canada C, Kelleher DJ, Gilmore R. Cotranslational and posttranslational N-glycosylation of polypeptides by distinct mammalian OST isoforms. Cell. 2009 Jan 23;136(2):272-83. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2008.11.047. PMID:19167329 doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.11.047
  4. Mita S, Maeda S, Shimada K, Araki S. Analyses of prealbumin mRNAs in individuals with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy. J Biochem. 1986 Nov;100(5):1215-22. PMID:3818577
  5. Maeda S, Mita S, Araki S, Shimada K. Structure and expression of the mutant prealbumin gene associated with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy. Mol Biol Med. 1986 Aug;3(4):329-38. PMID:3022108
  6. Tawara S, Nakazato M, Kangawa K, Matsuo H, Araki S. Identification of amyloid prealbumin variant in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (Japanese type). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1983 Nov 15;116(3):880-8. PMID:6651852
  7. Dwulet FE, Benson MD. Primary structure of an amyloid prealbumin and its plasma precursor in a heredofamilial polyneuropathy of Swedish origin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Feb;81(3):694-8. PMID:6583672
  8. Cornwell GG 3rd, Sletten K, Johansson B, Westermark P. Evidence that the amyloid fibril protein in senile systemic amyloidosis is derived from normal prealbumin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988 Jul 29;154(2):648-53. PMID:3135807
  9. Kametani F, Ikeda S, Yanagisawa N, Ishi T, Hanyu N. Characterization of a transthyretin-related amyloid fibril protein from cerebral amyloid angiopathy in type I familial amyloid polyneuropathy. J Neurol Sci. 1992 Apr;108(2):178-83. PMID:1517749
  10. Harding J, Skare J, Skinner M. A second transthyretin mutation at position 33 (Leu/Phe) associated with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1991 Oct 21;1097(3):183-6. PMID:1932142
  11. Skare J, Jones LA, Myles N, Kane K, Milunsky A, Cohen A, Skinner M. Two transthyretin mutations (glu42gly, his90asn) in an Italian family with amyloidosis. Clin Genet. 1994 Jun;45(6):281-4. PMID:7923855
  12. Terry CJ, Damas AM, Oliveira P, Saraiva MJ, Alves IL, Costa PP, Matias PM, Sakaki Y, Blake CC. Structure of Met30 variant of transthyretin and its amyloidogenic implications. EMBO J. 1993 Feb;12(2):735-41. PMID:8382610
  13. Hamilton JA, Steinrauf LK, Braden BC, Liepnieks J, Benson MD, Holmgren G, Sandgren O, Steen L. The x-ray crystal structure refinements of normal human transthyretin and the amyloidogenic Val-30-->Met variant to 1.7-A resolution. J Biol Chem. 1993 Feb 5;268(4):2416-24. PMID:8428915
  14. Sebastiao MP, Saraiva MJ, Damas AM. The crystal structure of amyloidogenic Leu55 --> Pro transthyretin variant reveals a possible pathway for transthyretin polymerization into amyloid fibrils. J Biol Chem. 1998 Sep 18;273(38):24715-22. PMID:9733771
  15. Eneqvist T, Olofsson A, Ando Y, Miyakawa T, Katsuragi S, Jass J, Lundgren E, Sauer-Eriksson AE. Disulfide-bond formation in the transthyretin mutant Y114C prevents amyloid fibril formation in vivo and in vitro. Biochemistry. 2002 Nov 5;41(44):13143-51. PMID:12403615
  16. Karlsson A, Olofsson A, Eneqvist T, Sauer-Eriksson AE. Cys114-linked dimers of transthyretin are compatible with amyloid formation. Biochemistry. 2005 Oct 4;44(39):13063-70. PMID:16185074 doi:10.1021/bi050795s
  17. Morais-de-Sa E, Neto-Silva RM, Pereira PJ, Saraiva MJ, Damas AM. The binding of 2,4-dinitrophenol to wild-type and amyloidogenic transthyretin. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2006 May;62(Pt 5):512-9. Epub 2006, Apr 19. PMID:16627944 doi:10.1107/S0907444906006962
  18. Nakazato M, Kangawa K, Minamino N, Tawara S, Matsuo H, Araki S. Revised analysis of amino acid replacement in a prealbumin variant (SKO-III) associated with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy of Jewish origin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1984 Sep 28;123(3):921-8. PMID:6487335
  19. Wallace MR, Dwulet FE, Conneally PM, Benson MD. Biochemical and molecular genetic characterization of a new variant prealbumin associated with hereditary amyloidosis. J Clin Invest. 1986 Jul;78(1):6-12. PMID:3722385 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI112573
  20. Wallace MR, Dwulet FE, Williams EC, Conneally PM, Benson MD. Identification of a new hereditary amyloidosis prealbumin variant, Tyr-77, and detection of the gene by DNA analysis. J Clin Invest. 1988 Jan;81(1):189-93. PMID:2891727 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI113293
  21. Ueno S, Uemichi T, Yorifuji S, Tarui S. A novel variant of transthyretin (Tyr114 to Cys) deduced from the nucleotide sequences of gene fragments from familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy in Japanese sibling cases. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990 May 31;169(1):143-7. PMID:2161654
  22. Ueno S, Uemichi T, Takahashi N, Soga F, Yorifuji S, Tarui S. Two novel variants of transthyretin identified in Japanese cases with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy: transthyretin (Glu42 to Gly) and transthyretin (Ser50 to Arg). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990 Jun 29;169(3):1117-21. PMID:2363717
  23. Saeki Y, Ueno S, Yorifuji S, Sugiyama Y, Ide Y, Matsuzawa Y. New mutant gene (transthyretin Arg 58) in cases with hereditary polyneuropathy detected by non-isotope method of single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991 Oct 15;180(1):380-5. PMID:1656975
  24. Ii S, Minnerath S, Ii K, Dyck PJ, Sommer SS. Two-tiered DNA-based diagnosis of transthyretin amyloidosis reveals two novel point mutations. Neurology. 1991 Jun;41(6):893-8. PMID:2046936
  25. Saraiva MJ, Almeida Mdo R, Sherman W, Gawinowicz M, Costa P, Costa PP, Goodman DS. A new transthyretin mutation associated with amyloid cardiomyopathy. Am J Hum Genet. 1992 May;50(5):1027-30. PMID:1570831
  26. Murakami T, Maeda S, Yi S, Ikegawa S, Kawashima E, Onodera S, Shimada K, Araki S. A novel transthyretin mutation associated with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992 Jan 31;182(2):520-6. PMID:1734866
  27. Murakami T, Atsumi T, Maeda S, Tanase S, Ishikawa K, Mita S, Kumamoto T, Araki S, Ando M. A novel transthyretin mutation at position 30 (Leu for Val) associated with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992 Aug 31;187(1):397-403. PMID:1520326
  28. Nishi H, Kimura A, Harada H, Hayashi Y, Nakamura M, Sasazuki T. Novel variant transthyretin gene (Ser50 to Ile) in familial cardiac amyloidosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992 Aug 31;187(1):460-6. PMID:1520336
  29. Jones LA, Skare JC, Cohen AS, Harding JA, Milunsky A, Skinner M. Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy: a new transthyretin position 30 mutation (alanine for valine) in a family of German descent. Clin Genet. 1992 Feb;41(2):70-3. PMID:1544214
  30. Jacobson DR, McFarlin DE, Kane I, Buxbaum JN. Transthyretin Pro55, a variant associated with early-onset, aggressive, diffuse amyloidosis with cardiac and neurologic involvement. Hum Genet. 1992 May;89(3):353-6. PMID:1351039
  31. Almeida MR, Ferlini A, Forabosco A, Gawinowicz M, Costa PP, Salvi F, Plasmati R, Tassinari CA, Altland K, Saraiva MJ. Two transthyretin variants (TTR Ala-49 and TTR Gln-89) in two Sicilian kindreds with hereditary amyloidosis. Hum Mutat. 1992;1(3):211-5. PMID:1301926 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.1380010306
  32. Uemichi T, Murrell JR, Zeldenrust S, Benson MD. A new mutant transthyretin (Arg 10) associated with familial amyloid polyneuropathy. J Med Genet. 1992 Dec;29(12):888-91. PMID:1362222
  33. Izumoto S, Younger D, Hays AP, Martone RL, Smith RT, Herbert J. Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy presenting with carpal tunnel syndrome and a new transthyretin mutation, asparagine 70. Neurology. 1992 Nov;42(11):2094-102. PMID:1436517
  34. Shiomi K, Nakazato M, Matsukura S, Ohnishi A, Hatanaka H, Tsuji S, Murai Y, Kojima M, Kangawa K, Matsuo H. A basic transthyretin variant (Glu61-->Lys) causes familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy: protein and DNA sequencing and PCR-induced mutation restriction analysis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993 Aug 16;194(3):1090-6. PMID:8352764 doi:http://dx.doi.org/S0006-291X(83)71933-9
  35. Hesse A, Altland K, Linke RP, Almeida MR, Saraiva MJ, Steinmetz A, Maisch B. Cardiac amyloidosis: a review and report of a new transthyretin (prealbumin) variant. Br Heart J. 1993 Aug;70(2):111-5. PMID:8038017
  36. Almeida Mdo R, Lopez-Andreu F, Munar-Ques M, Costa PP, Saraiva MJ. Transthyretin ALA 71: a new transthyretin variant in a Spanish family with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy. Hum Mutat. 1993;2(5):420-1. PMID:8257997 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.1380020516
  37. Benson MD 2nd, Turpin JC, Lucotte G, Zeldenrust S, LeChevalier B, Benson MD. A transthyretin variant (alanine 71) associated with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy in a French family. J Med Genet. 1993 Feb;30(2):120-2. PMID:8095302
  38. Skare JC, Milunsky JM, Milunsky A, Skare IB, Cohen AS, Skinner M. A new transthyretin variant from a patient with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy has asparagine substituted for histidine at position 90. Clin Genet. 1991 Jan;39(1):6-12. PMID:1997217
  39. Jacobson DR, Buxbaum JN. A double-variant transthyretin allele (Ser 6, Ile 33) in the Israeli patient "SKO" with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy. Hum Mutat. 1994;3(3):254-60. PMID:8019560 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.1380030313
  40. Jacobson DR, Gertz MA, Buxbaum JN. Transthyretin VAL107, a new variant associated with familial cardiac and neuropathic amyloidosis. Hum Mutat. 1994;3(4):399-401. PMID:8081397 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.1380030414
  41. Uemichi T, Gertz MA, Benson MD. Amyloid polyneuropathy in two German-American families: a new transthyretin variant (Val 107). J Med Genet. 1994 May;31(5):416-7. PMID:7914929
  42. Yasuda T, Sobue G, Doyu M, Nakazato M, Shiomi K, Yanagi T, Mitsuma T. Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy with late-onset and well-preserved autonomic function: a Japanese kindred with novel mutant transthyretin (Ala97 to Gly). J Neurol Sci. 1994 Jan;121(1):97-102. PMID:8133316
  43. Yamamoto K, Hsu SP, Yoshida K, Ikeda S, Nakazato M, Shiomi K, Cheng SY, Furihata K, Ueno I, Yanagisawa N. Familial amyloid polyneuropathy in Taiwan: identification of transthyretin variant (Leu55-->Pro). Muscle Nerve. 1994 Jun;17(6):637-41. PMID:7910950 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mus.880170611
  44. Reilly MM, Adams D, Booth DR, Davis MB, Said G, Laubriat-Bianchin M, Pepys MB, Thomas PK, Harding AE. Transthyretin gene analysis in European patients with suspected familial amyloid polyneuropathy. Brain. 1995 Aug;118 ( Pt 4):849-56. PMID:7655883
  45. Booth DR, Tan SY, Hawkins PN, Pepys MB, Frustaci A. A novel variant of transthyretin, 59Thr-->Lys, associated with autosomal dominant cardiac amyloidosis in an Italian family. Circulation. 1995 Feb 15;91(4):962-7. PMID:7850982
  46. Vidal R, Garzuly F, Budka H, Lalowski M, Linke RP, Brittig F, Frangione B, Wisniewski T. Meningocerebrovascular amyloidosis associated with a novel transthyretin mis-sense mutation at codon 18 (TTRD 18G) Am J Pathol. 1996 Feb;148(2):361-6. PMID:8579098
  47. Petersen RB, Goren H, Cohen M, Richardson SL, Tresser N, Lynn A, Gali M, Estes M, Gambetti P. Transthyretin amyloidosis: a new mutation associated with dementia. Ann Neurol. 1997 Mar;41(3):307-13. PMID:9066351 doi:10.1002/ana.410410305
  48. Jacobson DR, Pan T, Kyle RA, Buxbaum JN. Transthyretin ILE20, a new variant associated with late-onset cardiac amyloidosis. Hum Mutat. 1997;9(1):83-5. PMID:8990019 doi:<83::AID-HUMU19>3.0.CO;2-L 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(1997)9:1<83::AID-HUMU19>3.0.CO;2-L
  49. Patrosso MC, Salvi F, De Grandis D, Vezzoni P, Jacobson DR, Ferlini A. Novel transthyretin missense mutation (Thr34) in an Italian family with hereditary amyloidosis. Am J Med Genet. 1998 May 1;77(2):135-8. PMID:9605286
  50. Dupuy O, Bletry O, Blanc AS, Droz D, Viemont M, Delpech M, Grateau G. A novel variant of transthyretin (Glu42Asp) associated with sporadic late-onset cardiac amyloidosis. Amyloid. 1998 Dec;5(4):285-7. PMID:10036587
  51. Misrahi AM, Plante V, Lalu T, Serre L, Adams D, Lacroix DC, Said G. New transthyretin variants SER 91 and SER 116 associated with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy. Mutations in brief no. 151. Online. Hum Mutat. 1998;12(1):71. PMID:10627135 doi:<71::AID-HUMU15>3.0.CO;2-7 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(1998)12:1<71::AID-HUMU15>3.0.CO;2-7
  52. Booth DR, Gillmore JD, Persey MR, Booth SE, Cafferty KD, Tennent GA, Madhoo S, Cochrane SW, Whitehead TC, Pasvol G, Hawkins PN. Transthyretin Ile73Val is associated with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy in a Bangladeshi family. Mutations in brief no. 158. Online. Hum Mutat. 1998;12(2):135. PMID:10694917 doi:<135::AID-HUMU10>3.0.CO;2-6 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(1998)12:2<135::AID-HUMU10>3.0.CO;2-6
  53. Theberge R, Connors L, Skare J, Skinner M, Falk RH, Costello CE. A new amyloidogenic transthyretin variant (Val122Ala) found in a compound heterozygous patient. Amyloid. 1999 Mar;6(1):54-8. PMID:10211412
  54. Connors LH, Theberge R, Skare J, Costello CE, Falk RH, Skinner M. A new transthyretin variant (Ser23Asn) associated with familial amyloidosis in a Portuguese patient. Amyloid. 1999 Jun;6(2):114-8. PMID:10439117
  55. Tachibana N, Tokuda T, Yoshida K, Taketomi T, Nakazato M, Li YF, Masuda Y, Ikeda S. Usefulness of MALDI/TOF mass spectrometry of immunoprecipitated serum variant transthyretin in the diagnosis of familial amyloid polyneuropathy. Amyloid. 1999 Dec;6(4):282-8. PMID:10611950
  56. Brett M, Persey MR, Reilly MM, Revesz T, Booth DR, Booth SE, Hawkins PN, Pepys MB, Morgan-Hughes JA. Transthyretin Leu12Pro is associated with systemic, neuropathic and leptomeningeal amyloidosis. Brain. 1999 Feb;122 ( Pt 2):183-90. PMID:10071047
  57. Nakamura M, Yamashita T, Ando Y, Hamidi Asl K, Tashima K, Ohlsson P, Kususe Y, Benson MD. Identification of a new transthyretin variant (Ile49) in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and nonisotopic RNase cleavage assay. Hum Hered. 1999 Jul;49(4):186-9. PMID:10436378
  58. Nakamura M, Hamidi Asl K, Benson MD. A novel variant of transthyretin (Glu89Lys) associated with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy. Amyloid. 2000 Mar;7(1):46-50. PMID:10842705
  59. Janunger T, Anan I, Holmgren G, Lovheim O, Ohlsson PI, Suhr OB, Tashima K. Heart failure caused by a novel amyloidogenic mutation of the transthyretin gene: ATTR Ala45Ser. Amyloid. 2000 Jun;7(2):137-40. PMID:10842718
  60. de Carvalho M, Moreira P, Evangelista T, Ducla-Soares JL, Bento M, Fernandes R, Saraiva MJ. New transthyretin mutation V28M in a Portuguese kindred with amyloid polyneuropathy. Muscle Nerve. 2000 Jul;23(7):1016-21. PMID:10882995
  61. Ellie E, Camou F, Vital A, Rummens C, Grateau G, Delpech M, Valleix S. Recurrent subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with a new transthyretin variant (Gly53Glu). Neurology. 2001 Jul 10;57(1):135-7. PMID:11445644
  62. Yazaki M, Varga J, Dyck PJ, Benson MD. A new transthyretin variant Leu55Gln in a patient with systemic amyloidosis. Amyloid. 2002 Dec;9(4):268-71. PMID:12557757
  63. Lim A, Prokaeva T, McComb ME, O'Connor PB, Theberge R, Connors LH, Skinner M, Costello CE. Characterization of transthyretin variants in familial transthyretin amyloidosis by mass spectrometric peptide mapping and DNA sequence analysis. Anal Chem. 2002 Feb 15;74(4):741-51. PMID:11866053
  64. Lachmann HJ, Booth DR, Booth SE, Bybee A, Gilbertson JA, Gillmore JD, Pepys MB, Hawkins PN. Misdiagnosis of hereditary amyloidosis as AL (primary) amyloidosis. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jun 6;346(23):1786-91. PMID:12050338 doi:10.1056/NEJMoa013354
  65. Blevins G, Macaulay R, Harder S, Fladeland D, Yamashita T, Yazaki M, Hamidi Asl K, Benson MD, Donat JR. Oculoleptomeningeal amyloidosis in a large kindred with a new transthyretin variant Tyr69His. Neurology. 2003 May 27;60(10):1625-30. PMID:12771253
  66. Busse A, Sanchez MA, Monterroso V, Alvarado MV, Leon P. A severe form of amyloidotic polyneuropathy in a Costa Rican family with a rare transthyretin mutation (Glu54Lys). Am J Med Genet A. 2004 Jul 15;128A(2):190-4. PMID:15214015 doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.30007
  67. Frigerio R, Fabrizi GM, Ferrarini M, Cavallaro T, Brighina L, Santoro P, Agostoni E, Cavaletti G, Rizzuto N, Ferrarese C. An unusual transthyretin gene missense mutation (TTR Phe33Val) linked to familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy. Amyloid. 2004 Jun;11(2):121-4. PMID:15478468
  68. Bergen HR 3rd, Zeldenrust SR, Butz ML, Snow DS, Dyck PJ, Dyck PJ, Klein CJ, O'Brien JF, Thibodeau SN, Muddiman DC. Identification of transthyretin variants by sequential proteomic and genomic analysis. Clin Chem. 2004 Sep;50(9):1544-52. Epub 2004 Jun 24. PMID:15217993 doi:10.1373/clinchem.2004.033266
  69. Rosenzweig M, Skinner M, Prokaeva T, Theberge R, Costello C, Drachman BM, Connors LH. A new transthyretin variant (Glu61Gly) associated with cardiomyopathy. Amyloid. 2007 Mar;14(1):65-71. PMID:17453626 doi:775700621
  70. Bergstrom J, Patrosso MC, Colussi G, Salvadore M, Penco S, Lando G, Marocchi A, Ueda A, Nakamura M, Ando Y. A novel type of familial transthyretin amyloidosis, ATTR Asn124Ser, with co-localization of kappa light chains. Amyloid. 2007 Jun;14(2):141-5. PMID:17577687 doi:779687106
  71. Altland K, Benson MD, Costello CE, Ferlini A, Hazenberg BP, Hund E, Kristen AV, Linke RP, Merlini G, Salvi F, Saraiva MJ, Singer R, Skinner M, Winter P. Genetic microheterogeneity of human transthyretin detected by IEF. Electrophoresis. 2007 Jun;28(12):2053-64. PMID:17503405 doi:10.1002/elps.200600840
  72. Augustin S, Llige D, Andreu A, Gonzalez A, Genesca J. Familial amyloidosis in a large Spanish kindred resulting from a D38V mutation in the transthyretin gene. Eur J Clin Invest. 2007 Aug;37(8):673-8. PMID:17635579 doi:ECI1836
  73. Moses AC, Rosen HN, Moller DE, Tsuzaki S, Haddow JE, Lawlor J, Liepnieks JJ, Nichols WC, Benson MD. A point mutation in transthyretin increases affinity for thyroxine and produces euthyroid hyperthyroxinemia. J Clin Invest. 1990 Dec;86(6):2025-33. PMID:1979335 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI114938
  74. Murakami T, Tachibana S, Endo Y, Kawai R, Hara M, Tanase S, Ando M. Familial carpal tunnel syndrome due to amyloidogenic transthyretin His 114 variant. Neurology. 1994 Feb;44(2):315-8. PMID:8309582
  75. Herbert J, Wilcox JN, Pham KT, Fremeau RT Jr, Zeviani M, Dwork A, Soprano DR, Makover A, Goodman DS, Zimmerman EA, et al.. Transthyretin: a choroid plexus-specific transport protein in human brain. The 1986 S. Weir Mitchell award. Neurology. 1986 Jul;36(7):900-11. PMID:3714052

Proteopedia Page Contributors and Editors (what is this?)


Personal tools