Solution structure of Human Complement Factor H in 250 mM NaCl buffer
[CFAH_HUMAN] Genetic variations in CFH are associated with basal laminar drusen (BLD) [MIM:126700]; also known as drusen of Bruch membrane or cuticular drusen or grouped early adult-onset drusen. Drusen are extracellular deposits that accumulate below the retinal pigment epithelium on Bruch membrane. Basal laminar drusen refers to an early adult-onset drusen phenotype that shows a pattern of uniform small, slightly raised yellow subretinal nodules randomly scattered in the macula. In later stages, these drusen often become more numerous, with clustered groups of drusen scattered throughout the retina. In time these small basal laminar drusen may expand and ultimately lead to a serous pigment epithelial detachment of the macula that may result in vision loss. Defects in CFH are the cause of complement factor H deficiency (CFHD) [MIM:609814]. A disorder that can manifest as several different phenotypes, including asymptomatic, recurrent bacterial infections, and renal failure. Laboratory features usually include decreased serum levels of factor H, complement component C3, and a decrease in other terminal complement components, indicating activation of the alternative complement pathway. It is associated with a number of renal diseases with variable clinical presentation and progression, including membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome.        Defects in CFH are a cause of susceptibility to hemolytic uremic syndrome atypical type 1 (AHUS1) [MIM:235400]. An atypical form of hemolytic uremic syndrome. It is a complex genetic disease characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, renal failure and absence of episodes of enterocolitis and diarrhea. In contrast to typical hemolytic uremic syndrome, atypical forms have a poorer prognosis, with higher death rates and frequent progression to end-stage renal disease. Note=Susceptibility to the development of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome can be conferred by mutations in various components of or regulatory factors in the complement cascade system. Other genes may play a role in modifying the phenotype.        Genetic variation in CFH is associated with age-related macular degeneration type 4 (ARMD4) [MIM:610698]. ARMD is a multifactorial eye disease and the most common cause of irreversible vision loss in the developed world. In most patients, the disease is manifest as ophthalmoscopically visible yellowish accumulations of protein and lipid (known as drusen) that lie beneath the retinal pigment epithelium and within an elastin-containing structure known as Bruch membrane.
[CFAH_HUMAN] Factor H functions as a cofactor in the inactivation of C3b by factor I and also increases the rate of dissociation of the C3bBb complex (C3 convertase) and the (C3b)NBB complex (C5 convertase) in the alternative complement pathway.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Factor H (FH), a major serum regulator of C3b in the complement alternative pathway, is composed of 20 short complement regulator (SCR) domains. Earlier solution structures for FH showed that this has a folded-back domain arrangement and exists as oligomers. To clarify the molecular basis for this, analytical ultracentrifugation and X-ray scattering studies of native FH were performed as a function of NaCl concentration and pH. The sedimentation coefficient for the FH monomer decreased from 5.7 S to 5.3 S with increase in NaCl concentration, showing that weak electrostatic inter-domain interactions affect its folded-back structure. FH became more elongated at pH 9.4, showing the involvement of histidine residue(s) in its folded-back structure. Similar studies of partially deglycosylated FH suggested that oligosaccharides were not significant in determining the FH domain structure. The formation of FH oligomers decreased with increased NaCl concentration, indicating that electrostatic interactions also affect this. X-ray scattering showed that the maximum length of FH increased from 32 nm in low salt to 38 nm in high salt. Constrained X-ray scattering modelling was used to generate significantly improved FH molecular structures at medium resolution. In 50 mM NaCl, the modelled structures showed that inter-SCR domain contacts are likely, while these contacts are fewer in 250 mM NaCl. The results of this study show that the conformation of FH is affected by its local environment, and this may be important for its interactions with C3b and when bound to polyanionic cell surfaces.
Electrostatic interactions contribute to the folded-back conformation of wild type human factor H.,Okemefuna AI, Nan R, Gor J, Perkins SJ J Mol Biol. 2009 Aug 7;391(1):98-118. Epub 2009 Jun 6. PMID:19505476
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.