3gaw

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3gaw ()
Related: 2rlp, 2rlq, 2uwn, 1hfh, 2g7i, 1haq, 2ic4, 2qfg, 2qfh, 3gau, 3gav
Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


Contents

Solution structure of Human Complement Factor H in 250 mM NaCl buffer

Publication Abstract from PubMed

Factor H (FH), a major serum regulator of C3b in the complement alternative pathway, is composed of 20 short complement regulator (SCR) domains. Earlier solution structures for FH showed that this has a folded-back domain arrangement and exists as oligomers. To clarify the molecular basis for this, analytical ultracentrifugation and X-ray scattering studies of native FH were performed as a function of NaCl concentration and pH. The sedimentation coefficient for the FH monomer decreased from 5.7 S to 5.3 S with increase in NaCl concentration, showing that weak electrostatic inter-domain interactions affect its folded-back structure. FH became more elongated at pH 9.4, showing the involvement of histidine residue(s) in its folded-back structure. Similar studies of partially deglycosylated FH suggested that oligosaccharides were not significant in determining the FH domain structure. The formation of FH oligomers decreased with increased NaCl concentration, indicating that electrostatic interactions also affect this. X-ray scattering showed that the maximum length of FH increased from 32 nm in low salt to 38 nm in high salt. Constrained X-ray scattering modelling was used to generate significantly improved FH molecular structures at medium resolution. In 50 mM NaCl, the modelled structures showed that inter-SCR domain contacts are likely, while these contacts are fewer in 250 mM NaCl. The results of this study show that the conformation of FH is affected by its local environment, and this may be important for its interactions with C3b and when bound to polyanionic cell surfaces.

Electrostatic interactions contribute to the folded-back conformation of wild type human factor H., Okemefuna AI, Nan R, Gor J, Perkins SJ, J Mol Biol. 2009 Aug 7;391(1):98-118. Epub 2009 Jun 6. PMID:19505476

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Disease

[CFAH_HUMAN] Genetic variations in CFH are associated with basal laminar drusen (BLD) [MIM:126700]; also known as drusen of Bruch membrane or cuticular drusen or grouped early adult-onset drusen. Drusen are extracellular deposits that accumulate below the retinal pigment epithelium on Bruch membrane. Basal laminar drusen refers to an early adult-onset drusen phenotype that shows a pattern of uniform small, slightly raised yellow subretinal nodules randomly scattered in the macula. In later stages, these drusen often become more numerous, with clustered groups of drusen scattered throughout the retina. In time these small basal laminar drusen may expand and ultimately lead to a serous pigment epithelial detachment of the macula that may result in vision loss. Defects in CFH are the cause of complement factor H deficiency (CFHD) [MIM:609814]. A disorder that can manifest as several different phenotypes, including asymptomatic, recurrent bacterial infections, and renal failure. Laboratory features usually include decreased serum levels of factor H, complement component C3, and a decrease in other terminal complement components, indicating activation of the alternative complement pathway. It is associated with a number of renal diseases with variable clinical presentation and progression, including membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8] Defects in CFH are a cause of susceptibility to hemolytic uremic syndrome atypical type 1 (AHUS1) [MIM:235400]. An atypical form of hemolytic uremic syndrome. It is a complex genetic disease characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, renal failure and absence of episodes of enterocolitis and diarrhea. In contrast to typical hemolytic uremic syndrome, atypical forms have a poorer prognosis, with higher death rates and frequent progression to end-stage renal disease. Note=Susceptibility to the development of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome can be conferred by mutations in various components of or regulatory factors in the complement cascade system. Other genes may play a role in modifying the phenotype.[9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16] Genetic variation in CFH is associated with age-related macular degeneration type 4 (ARMD4) [MIM:610698]. ARMD is a multifactorial eye disease and the most common cause of irreversible vision loss in the developed world. In most patients, the disease is manifest as ophthalmoscopically visible yellowish accumulations of protein and lipid (known as drusen) that lie beneath the retinal pigment epithelium and within an elastin-containing structure known as Bruch membrane.[17]

Function

[CFAH_HUMAN] Factor H functions as a cofactor in the inactivation of C3b by factor I and also increases the rate of dissociation of the C3bBb complex (C3 convertase) and the (C3b)NBB complex (C5 convertase) in the alternative complement pathway.

About this Structure

3gaw is a 1 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

Reference

  • Okemefuna AI, Nan R, Gor J, Perkins SJ. Electrostatic interactions contribute to the folded-back conformation of wild type human factor H. J Mol Biol. 2009 Aug 7;391(1):98-118. Epub 2009 Jun 6. PMID:19505476 doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2009.06.010
  1. Ault BH, Schmidt BZ, Fowler NL, Kashtan CE, Ahmed AE, Vogt BA, Colten HR. Human factor H deficiency. Mutations in framework cysteine residues and block in H protein secretion and intracellular catabolism. J Biol Chem. 1997 Oct 3;272(40):25168-75. PMID:9312129
  2. Sanchez-Corral P, Bellavia D, Amico L, Brai M, Rodriguez de Cordoba S. Molecular basis for factor H and FHL-1 deficiency in an Italian family. Immunogenetics. 2000 Apr;51(4-5):366-9. PMID:10803850
  3. Perez-Caballero D, Gonzalez-Rubio C, Gallardo ME, Vera M, Lopez-Trascasa M, Rodriguez de Cordoba S, Sanchez-Corral P. Clustering of missense mutations in the C-terminal region of factor H in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2001 Feb;68(2):478-84. Epub 2001 Jan 17. PMID:11170895 doi:S0002-9297(07)64099-3
  4. Richards A, Buddles MR, Donne RL, Kaplan BS, Kirk E, Venning MC, Tielemans CL, Goodship JA, Goodship TH. Factor H mutations in hemolytic uremic syndrome cluster in exons 18-20, a domain important for host cell recognition. Am J Hum Genet. 2001 Feb;68(2):485-90. Epub 2001 Jan 17. PMID:11170896 doi:S0002-9297(07)64100-7
  5. Caprioli J, Bettinaglio P, Zipfel PF, Amadei B, Daina E, Gamba S, Skerka C, Marziliano N, Remuzzi G, Noris M. The molecular basis of familial hemolytic uremic syndrome: mutation analysis of factor H gene reveals a hot spot in short consensus repeat 20. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2001 Feb;12(2):297-307. PMID:11158219
  6. Remuzzi G, Ruggenenti P, Codazzi D, Noris M, Caprioli J, Locatelli G, Gridelli B. Combined kidney and liver transplantation for familial haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Lancet. 2002 May 11;359(9318):1671-2. PMID:12020532 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)08560-4
  7. Dragon-Durey MA, Fremeaux-Bacchi V, Loirat C, Blouin J, Niaudet P, Deschenes G, Coppo P, Herman Fridman W, Weiss L. Heterozygous and homozygous factor h deficiencies associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome or membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis: report and genetic analysis of 16 cases. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004 Mar;15(3):787-95. PMID:14978182
  8. Licht C, Heinen S, Jozsi M, Loschmann I, Saunders RE, Perkins SJ, Waldherr R, Skerka C, Kirschfink M, Hoppe B, Zipfel PF. Deletion of Lys224 in regulatory domain 4 of Factor H reveals a novel pathomechanism for dense deposit disease (MPGN II). Kidney Int. 2006 Jul;70(1):42-50. Epub 2006 Apr 12. PMID:16612335 doi:10.1038/sj.ki.5000269
  9. Dragon-Durey MA, Fremeaux-Bacchi V, Loirat C, Blouin J, Niaudet P, Deschenes G, Coppo P, Herman Fridman W, Weiss L. Heterozygous and homozygous factor h deficiencies associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome or membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis: report and genetic analysis of 16 cases. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004 Mar;15(3):787-95. PMID:14978182
  10. Warwicker P, Goodship TH, Donne RL, Pirson Y, Nicholls A, Ward RM, Turnpenny P, Goodship JA. Genetic studies into inherited and sporadic hemolytic uremic syndrome. Kidney Int. 1998 Apr;53(4):836-44. PMID:9551389 doi:10.1111/j.1523-1755.1998.00824.x
  11. Ying L, Katz Y, Schlesinger M, Carmi R, Shalev H, Haider N, Beck G, Sheffield VC, Landau D. Complement factor H gene mutation associated with autosomal recessive atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 1999 Dec;65(6):1538-46. PMID:10577907 doi:S0002-9297(07)63573-3
  12. Buddles MR, Donne RL, Richards A, Goodship J, Goodship TH. Complement factor H gene mutation associated with autosomal recessive atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2000 May;66(5):1721-2. PMID:10762557 doi:10.1086/302877
  13. Perkins SJ, Goodship TH. Molecular modelling of the C-terminal domains of factor H of human complement: a correlation between haemolytic uraemic syndrome and a predicted heparin binding site. J Mol Biol. 2002 Feb 15;316(2):217-24. PMID:11851332 doi:10.1006/jmbi.2001.5337
  14. Caprioli J, Castelletti F, Bucchioni S, Bettinaglio P, Bresin E, Pianetti G, Gamba S, Brioschi S, Daina E, Remuzzi G, Noris M. Complement factor H mutations and gene polymorphisms in haemolytic uraemic syndrome: the C-257T, the A2089G and the G2881T polymorphisms are strongly associated with the disease. Hum Mol Genet. 2003 Dec 15;12(24):3385-95. Epub 2003 Oct 28. PMID:14583443 doi:10.1093/hmg/ddg363
  15. Neumann HP, Salzmann M, Bohnert-Iwan B, Mannuelian T, Skerka C, Lenk D, Bender BU, Cybulla M, Riegler P, Konigsrainer A, Neyer U, Bock A, Widmer U, Male DA, Franke G, Zipfel PF. Haemolytic uraemic syndrome and mutations of the factor H gene: a registry-based study of German speaking countries. J Med Genet. 2003 Sep;40(9):676-81. PMID:12960213
  16. Maga TK, Nishimura CJ, Weaver AE, Frees KL, Smith RJ. Mutations in alternative pathway complement proteins in American patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Hum Mutat. 2010 Jun;31(6):E1445-60. doi: 10.1002/humu.21256. PMID:20513133 doi:10.1002/humu.21256
  17. Raychaudhuri S, Iartchouk O, Chin K, Tan PL, Tai AK, Ripke S, Gowrisankar S, Vemuri S, Montgomery K, Yu Y, Reynolds R, Zack DJ, Campochiaro B, Campochiaro P, Katsanis N, Daly MJ, Seddon JM. A rare penetrant mutation in CFH confers high risk of age-related macular degeneration. Nat Genet. 2011 Oct 23;43(12):1232-6. doi: 10.1038/ng.976. PMID:22019782 doi:10.1038/ng.976

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