Human glucokinase in complex with a synthetic activator
[HXK4_HUMAN] Defects in GCK are the cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 2 (MODY2) [MIM:125851]; also shortened MODY-2. MODY is a form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early adulthood (usually before 25 years of age), a primary defect in insulin secretion and frequent insulin-independence at the beginning of the disease.             Defects in GCK are the cause of familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia type 3 (HHF3) [MIM:602485]; also known as persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (PHHI) or congenital hyperinsulinism. HHF is the most common cause of persistent hypoglycemia in infancy. Unless early and aggressive intervention is undertaken, brain damage from recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia may occur.
[HXK4_HUMAN] Catalyzes the initial step in utilization of glucose by the beta-cell and liver at physiological glucose concentration. Glucokinase has a high Km for glucose, and so it is effective only when glucose is abundant. The role of GCK is to provide G6P for the synthesis of glycogen. Pancreatic glucokinase plays an important role in modulating insulin secretion. Hepatic glucokinase helps to facilitate the uptake and conversion of glucose by acting as an insulin-sensitive determinant of hepatic glucose usage.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The optimization of a series of benzimidazole glucokinase activators is described. We identified a novel and potent achiral benzimidazole derivative as an allosteric GK activator. This activator was designed and synthesized via removal of the chiral center of the lead compound, 6-(N-acylpyrrolidin-2-yl)benzimidazole. The activator exhibited good PK profiles in rats and dogs, and significant hypoglycemic efficacy at 1 mg/kg po dosing in a rat OGTT model. The binding site and binding mode of the benzimidazole class of GKA with GK protein was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis.
The design and optimization of a series of 2-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-benzimidazole compounds as allosteric glucokinase activators.,Takahashi K, Hashimoto N, Nakama C, Kamata K, Sasaki K, Yoshimoto R, Ohyama S, Hosaka H, Maruki H, Nagata Y, Eiki J, Nishimura T Bioorg Med Chem. 2009 Oct 1;17(19):7042-51. Epub 2009 May 21. PMID:19736020
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.