Crystal structure of the single-chain Fv (scFv) fragment of an anti-ErbB2 antibody chA21 in complex with residues 1-192 of ErbB2 extracellular domain
[ERBB2_HUMAN] Defects in ERBB2 are a cause of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) [MIM:137215]. A cancer predisposition syndrome with increased susceptibility to diffuse gastric cancer. Diffuse gastric cancer is a malignant disease characterized by poorly differentiated infiltrating lesions resulting in thickening of the stomach. Malignant tumors start in the stomach, can spread to the esophagus or the small intestine, and can extend through the stomach wall to nearby lymph nodes and organs. It also can metastasize to other parts of the body. Defects in ERBB2 are involved in the development of glioma (GLM) [MIM:137800]. Gliomas are central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells and comprise astrocytomas, glioblastoma multiforme, oligodendrogliomas, and ependymomas. Defects in ERBB2 are a cause of susceptibility to ovarian cancer (OC) [MIM:167000]. Ovarian cancer common malignancy originating from ovarian tissue. Although many histologic types of ovarian neoplasms have been described, epithelial ovarian carcinoma is the most common form. Ovarian cancers are often asymptomatic and the recognized signs and symptoms, even of late-stage disease, are vague. Consequently, most patients are diagnosed with advanced disease. Defects in ERBB2 may be a cause of lung cancer (LNCR) [MIM:211980]. LNCR is a common malignancy affecting tissues of the lung. The most common form of lung cancer is non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that can be divided into 3 major histologic subtypes: squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell lung cancer. NSCLC is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and has a poor prognosis. Defects in ERBB2 are a cause of gastric cancer (GASC) [MIM:613659]. A malignant disease which starts in the stomach, can spread to the esophagus or the small intestine, and can extend through the stomach wall to nearby lymph nodes and organs. It also can metastasize to other parts of the body. The term gastric cancer or gastric carcinoma refers to adenocarcinoma of the stomach that accounts for most of all gastric malignant tumors. Two main histologic types are recognized, diffuse type and intestinal type carcinomas. Diffuse tumors are poorly differentiated infiltrating lesions resulting in thickening of the stomach. In contrast, intestinal tumors are usually exophytic, often ulcerating, and associated with intestinal metaplasia of the stomach, most often observed in sporadic disease. Note=Chromosomal aberrations involving ERBB2 may be a cause gastric cancer. Deletions within 17q12 region producing fusion transcripts with CDK12, leading to CDK12-ERBB2 fusion leading to truncated CDK12 protein not in-frame with ERBB2.
[ERBB2_HUMAN] Protein tyrosine kinase that is part of several cell surface receptor complexes, but that apparently needs a coreceptor for ligand binding. Essential component of a neuregulin-receptor complex, although neuregulins do not interact with it alone. GP30 is a potential ligand for this receptor. Regulates outgrowth and stabilization of peripheral microtubules (MTs). Upon ERBB2 activation, the MEMO1-RHOA-DIAPH1 signaling pathway elicits the phosphorylation and thus the inhibition of GSK3B at cell membrane. This prevents the phosphorylation of APC and CLASP2, allowing its association with the cell membrane. In turn, membrane-bound APC allows the localization of MACF1 to the cell membrane, which is required for microtubule capture and stabilization.      In the nucleus is involved in transcriptional regulation. Associates with the 5'-TCAAATTC-3' sequence in the PTGS2/COX-2 promoter and activates its transcription. Implicated in transcriptional activation of CDKN1A; the function involves STAT3 and SRC. Involved in the transcription of rRNA genes by RNA Pol I and enhances protein synthesis and cell growth.     
Publication Abstract from PubMed
p185(her2/neu) belongs to the ErbB receptor tyrosine kinase family, which has been associated with human breast, ovarian, and lung cancers. Targeted therapies employing ectodomain-specific p185(her2/neu) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have demonstrated clinical efficacy for breast cancer. Our previous studies have shown that p185(her2/neu) mAbs are able to disable the kinase activity of homomeric and heteromeric kinase complexes and induce the conversion of the malignant to normal phenotype. We previously developed a chimeric antibody chA21 that specifically inhibits the growth of p185(her2/neu)-overexpressing cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we report the crystal structure of the single-chain Fv of chA21 in complex with an N-terminal fragment of p185(her2/neu), which reveals that chA21 binds a region opposite to the dimerization interface, indicating that chA21 does not directly disrupt the dimerization. In contrast, the bivalent chA21 leads to internalization and down-regulation of p185(her2/neu). We propose a structure-based model in which chA21 cross-links two p185(her2/neu) molecules on separate homo- or heterodimers to form a large oligomer in the cell membrane. This model reveals a mechanism for mAbs to drive the receptors into the internalization/degradation path from the inactive hypophosphorylated tetramers formed dynamically by active dimers during a "physiologic process."
Structural Insights into the Down-regulation of Overexpressed p185her2/neu Protein of Transformed Cells by the Antibody chA21.,Zhou H, Zha Z, Liu Y, Zhang H, Zhu J, Hu S, Shen G, Cheng L, Niu L, Greene MI, Teng M, Liu J J Biol Chem. 2011 Sep 9;286(36):31676-83. Epub 2011 Jun 16. PMID:21680730
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.