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|3ho0, resolution 2.60Å ()|
|Gene:||PPARG, NR1C3 (Homo sapiens)|
Crystal structure of the PPARgamma-LBD complexed with a new aryloxy-3phenylpropanoic acid
The preparation of a new series of 2-aryloxy-3-phenyl-propanoic acids, resulting from the introduction of a linker into the diphenyl system of the previously reported PPARalpha/gamma dual agonist 1, allowed the identification of new ligands with improved potency on PPARalpha and unchanged activity on PPARgamma. For the most interesting stereoisomers S-2 and S-4, X-ray studies in PPARgamma and docking experiments in PPARalpha provided a molecular explanation for their different behavior as full and partial agonists of PPARalpha and PPARgamma, respectively. Due to the adverse effects provoked by hypolipidemic drugs on skeletal muscle function, we also investigated the blocking activity of S-2 and S-4 on skeletal muscle membrane chloride channel conductance and found that these ligands have a pharmacological profile more beneficial compared to fibrates currently used in therapy.
New 2-aryloxy-3-phenyl-propanoic acids as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha/gamma dual agonists with improved potency and reduced adverse effects on skeletal muscle function., Fracchiolla G, Laghezza A, Piemontese L, Tortorella P, Mazza F, Montanari R, Pochetti G, Lavecchia A, Novellino E, Pierno S, Conte Camerino D, Loiodice F, J Med Chem. 2009 Oct 22;52(20):6382-93. PMID:19775169
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
[PPARG_HUMAN] Note=Defects in PPARG can lead to type 2 insulin-resistant diabetes and hyptertension. PPARG mutations may be associated with colon cancer. Defects in PPARG may be associated with susceptibility to obesity (OBESITY) [MIM:601665]. It is a condition characterized by an increase of body weight beyond the limitation of skeletal and physical requirements, as the result of excessive accumulation of body fat. Defects in PPARG are the cause of familial partial lipodystrophy type 3 (FPLD3) [MIM:604367]. Familial partial lipodystrophies (FPLD) are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterized by marked loss of subcutaneous (sc) fat from the extremities. Affected individuals show an increased preponderance of insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia. Genetic variations in PPARG can be associated with susceptibility to glioma type 1 (GLM1) [MIM:137800]. Gliomas are central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells and comprise astrocytomas, glioblastoma multiforme, oligodendrogliomas, and ependymomas. Note=Polymorphic PPARG alleles have been found to be significantly over-represented among a cohort of American patients with sporadic glioblastoma multiforme suggesting a possible contribution to disease susceptibility.
[PPARG_HUMAN] Receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the receptor binds to a promoter element in the gene for acyl-CoA oxidase and activates its transcription. It therefore controls the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Key regulator of adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis. Acts as a critical regulator of gut homeostasis by suppressing NF-kappa-B-mediated proinflammatory responses.
About this Structure
- Fracchiolla G, Laghezza A, Piemontese L, Tortorella P, Mazza F, Montanari R, Pochetti G, Lavecchia A, Novellino E, Pierno S, Conte Camerino D, Loiodice F. New 2-aryloxy-3-phenyl-propanoic acids as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha/gamma dual agonists with improved potency and reduced adverse effects on skeletal muscle function. J Med Chem. 2009 Oct 22;52(20):6382-93. PMID:19775169 doi:10.1021/jm900941b
- Montanari R, Saccoccia F, Scotti E, Crestani M, Godio C, Gilardi F, Loiodice F, Fracchiolla G, Laghezza A, Tortorella P, Lavecchia A, Novellino E, Mazza F, Aschi M, Pochetti G. Crystal structure of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) ligand binding domain complexed with a novel partial agonist: a new region of the hydrophobic pocket could be exploited for drug design. J Med Chem. 2008 Dec 25;51(24):7768-76. PMID:19053776 doi:10.1021/jm800733h
- ↑ Ristow M, Muller-Wieland D, Pfeiffer A, Krone W, Kahn CR. Obesity associated with a mutation in a genetic regulator of adipocyte differentiation. N Engl J Med. 1998 Oct 1;339(14):953-9. PMID:9753710 doi:10.1056/NEJM199810013391403
- ↑ Hegele RA, Cao H, Frankowski C, Mathews ST, Leff T. PPARG F388L, a transactivation-deficient mutant, in familial partial lipodystrophy. Diabetes. 2002 Dec;51(12):3586-90. PMID:12453919
- ↑ Agarwal AK, Garg A. A novel heterozygous mutation in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma gene in a patient with familial partial lipodystrophy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Jan;87(1):408-11. PMID:11788685
- ↑ Mukherjee R, Jow L, Croston GE, Paterniti JR Jr. Identification, characterization, and tissue distribution of human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isoforms PPARgamma2 versus PPARgamma1 and activation with retinoid X receptor agonists and antagonists. J Biol Chem. 1997 Mar 21;272(12):8071-6. PMID:9065481
- ↑ Yin Y, Yuan H, Wang C, Pattabiraman N, Rao M, Pestell RG, Glazer RI. 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 activates the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and promotes adipocyte differentiation. Mol Endocrinol. 2006 Feb;20(2):268-78. Epub 2005 Sep 8. PMID:16150867 doi:10.1210/me.2005-0197
- ↑ Park SH, Choi HJ, Yang H, Do KH, Kim J, Lee DW, Moon Y. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-activated C/EBP homologous protein enhances nuclear factor-kappaB signals via repression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. J Biol Chem. 2010 Nov 12;285(46):35330-9. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.136259. Epub 2010, Sep 9. PMID:20829347 doi:10.1074/jbc.M110.136259