Ternary Complex of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) Bound Both to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate and to the Allosteric Inhibitor AV1013 (R-stereoisomer)
[MIF_HUMAN] Genetic variations in MIF are associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis systemic juvenile (RASJ) [MIM:604302]. An inflammatory articular disorder with systemic-onset beginning before the age of 16. It represents a subgroup of juvenile arthritis associated with severe extraarticular features and occasionally fatal complications. During active phases of the disorder, patients display a typical daily spiking fever, an evanescent macular rash, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, serositis, myalgia and arthritis.
[MIF_HUMAN] Pro-inflammatory cytokine. Involved in the innate immune response to bacterial pathogens. The expression of MIF at sites of inflammation suggests a role as mediator in regulating the function of macrophages in host defense. Counteracts the anti-inflammatory activity of glucocorticoids. Has phenylpyruvate tautomerase and dopachrome tautomerase activity (in vitro), but the physiological substrate is not known. It is not clear whether the tautomerase activity has any physiological relevance, and whether it is important for cytokine activity. 
Publication Abstract from PubMed
AV411 (ibudilast; 3-isobutyryl-2-isopropylpyrazolo-[1,5-a]pyridine) is an antiinflammatory drug that was initially developed for the treatment of bronchial asthma but which also has been used for cerebrovascular and ocular indications. It is a nonselective inhibitor of various phosphodiesterases (PDEs) and has varied antiinflammatory activity. More recently, AV411 has been studied as a possible therapeutic for the treatment of neuropathic pain and opioid withdrawal through its actions on glial cells. As described herein, the PDE inhibitor AV411 and its PDE-inhibition-compromised analog AV1013 inhibit the catalytic and chemotactic functions of the proinflammatory protein, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). Enzymatic analysis indicates that these compounds are noncompetitive inhibitors of the p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (HPP) tautomerase activity of MIF and an allosteric binding site of AV411 and AV1013 is detected by NMR. The allosteric inhibition mechanism is further elucidated by X-ray crystallography based on the MIF/AV1013 binary and MIF/AV1013/HPP ternary complexes. In addition, our antibody experiments directed against MIF receptors indicate that CXCR2 is the major receptor for MIF-mediated chemotaxis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
Allosteric inhibition of macrophage migration inhibitory factor revealed by ibudilast.,Cho Y, Crichlow GV, Vermeire JJ, Leng L, Du X, Hodsdon ME, Bucala R, Cappello M, Gross M, Gaeta F, Johnson K, Lolis EJ Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Jun 22;107(25):11313-8. Epub 2010 Jun 8. PMID:20534506
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.