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3jsd

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3jsd, resolution 2.50Å ()
Ligands: , ,
Non-Standard Residues:
Related: 1trz


Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


Contents

Insulin's biosynthesis and activity have opposing structural requirements: a new factor in neonatal diabetes mellitus

Publication Abstract from PubMed

The paper describes the arrangement of the atoms within rhombohedral crystals of 2Zn pig insulin as seen in electron density maps calculated from X-ray data extending to 1.5 A (1 A = 10(-10) m = 10(-1) nm) at room temperature and refined to R = 0.153. The unit cell contains 2 zinc ions, 6 insulin molecules and about 3 x 283 water molecules. The atoms in the protein molecules appear well defined, 7 of the 102 side chains in the asymmetric unit have been assigned alternative disordered positions. The electron density over the water molecules has been interpreted in terms of 349 sites, 217 weighted 1.0, 126 weighted 0.5, 5 at 0.33 and 1 at 0.25 giving ca. 282 molecules. The positions and contacts of all the residues belonging to the two A and B chains of the asymmetric unit are shown first and then details of their arrangement in the two insulin molecules, 1 and 2, which are different. The formation from these molecules of a compact dimer and the further aggregation of three dimers to form a hexamer around two zinc ions, follows. It appears that in the packing of the hexamers in the crystal there are conflicting influences; too-close contacts between histidine B5 residues in neighbouring hexamers are probably responsible for movements of atoms at the beginning of the A chain of one of the two molecules of the dimer that initiate movements in other parts, particularly near the end of the B chain. At every stage of the building of the protein structure, residues to chains of definite conformation, molecules, dimers, hexamers and crystals, we can trace the effect of the packing of like groups to like, aliphatic groups together, aromatic groups together, hydrogen-bonded structures, positive and negative ions. Between the protein molecules, the water is distributed in cavities and channels that are continuous throughout the crystals. More than half the water molecules appear directly hydrogen bonded to protein atoms. These are generally in contact with other water molecules in chains and rings of increasing disorder, corresponding with their movement through the crystals. Within the established crystal structure we survey next the distribution of hydrogen bonds within the protein molecules and between water and protein and water and water; all but eight of the active atoms in the protein form at least one hydrogen bond.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

The structure of 2Zn pig insulin crystals at 1.5 A resolution., Baker EN, Blundell TL, Cutfield JF, Cutfield SM, Dodson EJ, Dodson GG, Hodgkin DM, Hubbard RE, Isaacs NW, Reynolds CD, et al., Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1988 Jul 6;319(1195):369-456. PMID:2905485

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Disease

[INS_HUMAN] Defects in INS are the cause of familial hyperproinsulinemia (FHPRI) [MIM:176730].[1][2][3][4] Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent type 2 (IDDM2) [MIM:125852]. IDDM2 is a multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical fetaures are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels.[5] Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus permanent neonatal (PNDM) [MIM:606176]. PNDM is a rare form of diabetes distinct from childhood-onset autoimmune diabetes mellitus type 1. It is characterized by insulin-requiring hyperglycemia that is diagnosed within the first months of life. Permanent neonatal diabetes requires lifelong therapy.[6][7] Defects in INS are a cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 10 (MODY10) [MIM:613370]. MODY10 is a form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early adulthood (usually before 25 years of age), a primary defect in insulin secretion and frequent insulin-independence at the beginning of the disease.[8][9][10]

Function

[INS_HUMAN] Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver.

About this Structure

3jsd is a 4 chain structure. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

See Also

Reference

  • Baker EN, Blundell TL, Cutfield JF, Cutfield SM, Dodson EJ, Dodson GG, Hodgkin DM, Hubbard RE, Isaacs NW, Reynolds CD, et al.. The structure of 2Zn pig insulin crystals at 1.5 A resolution. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1988 Jul 6;319(1195):369-456. PMID:2905485
  • Derewenda U, Derewenda Z, Dodson EJ, Dodson GG, Reynolds CD, Smith GD, Sparks C, Swenson D. Phenol stabilizes more helix in a new symmetrical zinc insulin hexamer. Nature. 1989 Apr 13;338(6216):594-6. PMID:2648161 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/338594a0
  • Hua QX, Nakagawa S, Hu SQ, Jia W, Wang S, Weiss MA. Toward the active conformation of insulin: stereospecific modulation of a structural switch in the B chain. J Biol Chem. 2006 Aug 25;281(34):24900-9. Epub 2006 Jun 8. PMID:16762918 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M602691200
  1. Chan SJ, Seino S, Gruppuso PA, Schwartz R, Steiner DF. A mutation in the B chain coding region is associated with impaired proinsulin conversion in a family with hyperproinsulinemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Apr;84(8):2194-7. PMID:3470784
  2. Barbetti F, Raben N, Kadowaki T, Cama A, Accili D, Gabbay KH, Merenich JA, Taylor SI, Roth J. Two unrelated patients with familial hyperproinsulinemia due to a mutation substituting histidine for arginine at position 65 in the proinsulin molecule: identification of the mutation by direct sequencing of genomic deoxyribonucleic acid amplified by polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990 Jul;71(1):164-9. PMID:2196279
  3. Shibasaki Y, Kawakami T, Kanazawa Y, Akanuma Y, Takaku F. Posttranslational cleavage of proinsulin is blocked by a point mutation in familial hyperproinsulinemia. J Clin Invest. 1985 Jul;76(1):378-80. PMID:4019786 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI111973
  4. Yano H, Kitano N, Morimoto M, Polonsky KS, Imura H, Seino Y. A novel point mutation in the human insulin gene giving rise to hyperproinsulinemia (proinsulin Kyoto). J Clin Invest. 1992 Jun;89(6):1902-7. PMID:1601997 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI115795
  5. Molven A, Ringdal M, Nordbo AM, Raeder H, Stoy J, Lipkind GM, Steiner DF, Philipson LH, Bergmann I, Aarskog D, Undlien DE, Joner G, Sovik O, Bell GI, Njolstad PR. Mutations in the insulin gene can cause MODY and autoantibody-negative type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 2008 Apr;57(4):1131-5. doi: 10.2337/db07-1467. Epub 2008 Jan 11. PMID:18192540 doi:10.2337/db07-1467
  6. Stoy J, Edghill EL, Flanagan SE, Ye H, Paz VP, Pluzhnikov A, Below JE, Hayes MG, Cox NJ, Lipkind GM, Lipton RB, Greeley SA, Patch AM, Ellard S, Steiner DF, Hattersley AT, Philipson LH, Bell GI. Insulin gene mutations as a cause of permanent neonatal diabetes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Sep 18;104(38):15040-4. Epub 2007 Sep 12. PMID:17855560 doi:10.1073/pnas.0707291104
  7. Edghill EL, Flanagan SE, Patch AM, Boustred C, Parrish A, Shields B, Shepherd MH, Hussain K, Kapoor RR, Malecki M, MacDonald MJ, Stoy J, Steiner DF, Philipson LH, Bell GI, Hattersley AT, Ellard S. Insulin mutation screening in 1,044 patients with diabetes: mutations in the INS gene are a common cause of neonatal diabetes but a rare cause of diabetes diagnosed in childhood or adulthood. Diabetes. 2008 Apr;57(4):1034-42. Epub 2007 Dec 27. PMID:18162506 doi:10.2337/db07-1405
  8. Molven A, Ringdal M, Nordbo AM, Raeder H, Stoy J, Lipkind GM, Steiner DF, Philipson LH, Bergmann I, Aarskog D, Undlien DE, Joner G, Sovik O, Bell GI, Njolstad PR. Mutations in the insulin gene can cause MODY and autoantibody-negative type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 2008 Apr;57(4):1131-5. doi: 10.2337/db07-1467. Epub 2008 Jan 11. PMID:18192540 doi:10.2337/db07-1467
  9. Edghill EL, Flanagan SE, Patch AM, Boustred C, Parrish A, Shields B, Shepherd MH, Hussain K, Kapoor RR, Malecki M, MacDonald MJ, Stoy J, Steiner DF, Philipson LH, Bell GI, Hattersley AT, Ellard S. Insulin mutation screening in 1,044 patients with diabetes: mutations in the INS gene are a common cause of neonatal diabetes but a rare cause of diabetes diagnosed in childhood or adulthood. Diabetes. 2008 Apr;57(4):1034-42. Epub 2007 Dec 27. PMID:18162506 doi:10.2337/db07-1405
  10. Boesgaard TW, Pruhova S, Andersson EA, Cinek O, Obermannova B, Lauenborg J, Damm P, Bergholdt R, Pociot F, Pisinger C, Barbetti F, Lebl J, Pedersen O, Hansen T. Further evidence that mutations in INS can be a rare cause of Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY). BMC Med Genet. 2010 Mar 12;11:42. doi: 10.1186/1471-2350-11-42. PMID:20226046 doi:10.1186/1471-2350-11-42

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