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|3k8q, resolution 2.50Å ()|
|Gene:||NP, PNP (Homo sapiens)|
|Related:||1rr6, 1rsz, 3k8o|
Crystal structure of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase in complex with SerMe-Immucillin H
Inhibition of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) stops growth of activated T-cells and the formation of 6-oxypurine bases, making it a target for leukemia, autoimmune disorders, and gout. Four generations of ribocation transition-state mimics bound to PNP are structurally characterized. Immucillin-H (K*i(1/4) 58 pM, first generation)contains an iminoribitol cation with four asymmetric carbons. DADMe-Immucillin-H (K*i(1/4) 9 pM, second-generation),uses a methylene-bridged dihydroxypyrrolidine cation with twoasymmetric centers.DATMe-Immucillin-H (K*i(1/4)9 pM, third-generation) contains an open-chain amino alcohol cation with two asymmetric carbons. SerMe-ImmH (K*i(1/4) 5 pM, fourth-generation) uses achiral dihydroxyaminoalcohol seramide as the ribocation mimic. Crystal structures of PNPs establish features of tight binding to be; 1) ion-pair formation between bound phosphate (or its mimic) and inhibitor cation, 2) leaving-group interactions to N1, O6, and N7 of 9-deazahypoxanthine, 3) interaction between phosphate and inhibitor hydroxyl groups, and 4) His257 interacting with the 5'-hydroxyl group. The first generation analogue is an imperfect fit to the catalytic site with a long ion pair distance between the iminoribitol and bound phosphate and weaker interactions to the leaving group. Increasing the ribocation to leaving-group distance in the second- to fourth-generation analogues provides powerful binding interactions and a facile synthetic route to powerful inhibitors. Despite chemical diversity in the four generations of transition-state analogues, the catalytic site geometry is almost the same for all analogues. Multiple solutions in transition-state analogue design are available to convert the energy of catalytic rate enhancement to binding energy in human PNP.
Four generations of transition-state analogues for human purine nucleoside phosphorylase., Ho MC, Shi W, Rinaldo-Matthis A, Tyler PC, Evans GB, Clinch K, Almo SC, Schramm VL, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Mar 16;107(11):4805-12. Epub 2010 Mar 8. PMID:020212140
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
[PNPH_HUMAN] Defects in PNP are the cause of purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency (PNPD) [MIM:613179]. It leads to a severe T-cell immunodeficiency with neurologic disorder in children.
[PNPH_HUMAN] The purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic breakdown of the N-glycosidic bond in the beta-(deoxy)ribonucleoside molecules, with the formation of the corresponding free purine bases and pentose-1-phosphate.
About this Structure
- ↑ Williams SR, Gekeler V, McIvor RS, Martin DW Jr. A human purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency caused by a single base change. J Biol Chem. 1987 Feb 15;262(5):2332-8. PMID:3029074
- ↑ Aust MR, Andrews LG, Barrett MJ, Norby-Slycord CJ, Markert ML. Molecular analysis of mutations in a patient with purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency. Am J Hum Genet. 1992 Oct;51(4):763-72. PMID:1384322
- ↑ Pannicke U, Tuchschmid P, Friedrich W, Bartram CR, Schwarz K. Two novel missense and frameshift mutations in exons 5 and 6 of the purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) gene in a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) patient. Hum Genet. 1996 Dec;98(6):706-9. PMID:8931706
- ↑ Ealick SE, Rule SA, Carter DC, Greenhough TJ, Babu YS, Cook WJ, Habash J, Helliwell JR, Stoeckler JD, Parks RE Jr, et al.. Three-dimensional structure of human erythrocytic purine nucleoside phosphorylase at 3.2 A resolution. J Biol Chem. 1990 Jan 25;265(3):1812-20. PMID:2104852