cFMS tyrosine kinase in complex with 4-Cyano-1H-imidazole-2-carboxylic acid (2-cyclohex-1-enyl-4-piperidin-4-yl-phenyl)-amide
[CSF1R_HUMAN] Note=Aberrant expression of CSF1 or CSF1R can promote cancer cell proliferation, invasion and formation of metastases. Overexpression of CSF1 or CSF1R is observed in a significant percentage of breast, ovarian, prostate, and endometrial cancers.      Note=Aberrant expression of CSF1 or CSF1R may play a role in inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, glomerulonephritis, atherosclerosis, and allograft rejection.      Defects in CSF1R are the cause of leukoencephalopathy, diffuse hereditary, with spheroids (HDLS) [MIM:221820]. An autosomal dominant adult-onset rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by variable behavioral, cognitive, and motor changes. Patients often die of dementia within 6 years of onset. Brain imaging shows patchy abnormalities in the cerebral white matter, predominantly affecting the frontal and parietal lobes.      
[CSF1R_HUMAN] Tyrosine-protein kinase that acts as cell-surface receptor for CSF1 and IL34 and plays an essential role in the regulation of survival, proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic precursor cells, especially mononuclear phagocytes, such as macrophages and monocytes. Promotes the release of proinflammatory chemokines in response to IL34 and CSF1, and thereby plays an important role in innate immunity and in inflammatory processes. Plays an important role in the regulation of osteoclast proliferation and differentiation, the regulation of bone resorption, and is required for normal bone and tooth development. Required for normal male and female fertility, and for normal development of milk ducts and acinar structures in the mammary gland during pregnancy. Promotes reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, regulates formation of membrane ruffles, cell adhesion and cell migration, and promotes cancer cell invasion. Activates several signaling pathways in response to ligand binding. Phosphorylates PIK3R1, PLCG2, GRB2, SLA2 and CBL. Activation of PLCG2 leads to the production of the cellular signaling molecules diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, that then lead to the activation of protein kinase C family members, especially PRKCD. Phosphorylation of PIK3R1, the regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, leads to activation of the AKT1 signaling pathway. Activated CSF1R also mediates activation of the MAP kinases MAPK1/ERK2 and/or MAPK3/ERK1, and of the SRC family kinases SRC, FYN and YES1. Activated CSF1R transmits signals both via proteins that directly interact with phosphorylated tyrosine residues in its intracellular domain, or via adapter proteins, such as GRB2. Promotes activation of STAT family members STAT3, STAT5A and/or STAT5B. Promotes tyrosine phosphorylation of SHC1 and INPP5D/SHIP-1. Receptor signaling is down-regulated by protein phosphatases, such as INPP5D/SHIP-1, that dephosphorylate the receptor and its downstream effectors, and by rapid internalization of the activated receptor.             
Publication Abstract from PubMed
A class of potent inhibitors of colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R or FMS), as exemplified by 8 and 21, was optimized to improve pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties and potential toxicological liabilities. Early stage absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion assays were employed to ensure the incorporation of druglike properties resulting in the selection of several compounds with good activity in a pharmacodynamic screening assay in mice. Further investigation, utilizing the type II collagen-induced arthritis model in mice, culminated in the selection of anti-inflammatory development candidate JNJ-28312141 (23, FMS IC(50) = 0.69 nM, cell assay IC(50) = 2.6 nM). Compound 23 also demonstrated efficacy in rat adjuvant and streptococcal cell wall-induced models of arthritis and has entered phase I clinical trials.
Optimization of a Potent Class of Arylamide Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 Receptor Inhibitors Leading to Anti-inflammatory Clinical Candidate 4-Cyano-N-[2-(1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-4-[1-[(dimethylamino)acetyl]-4-piperidiny l]phenyl]-1H-imidazole-2-carboxamide (JNJ-28312141).,Illig CR, Manthey CL, Wall MJ, Meegalla SK, Chen J, Wilson KJ, Ballentine SK, Desjarlais RL, Schubert C, Crysler CS, Chen Y, Molloy CJ, Chaikin MA, Donatelli RR, Yurkow E, Zhou Z, Player MR, Tomczuk BE J Med Chem. 2011 Nov 24;54(22):7860-83. Epub 2011 Oct 31. PMID:22039836
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.