|3l3n, resolution 2.30Å ()|
|Ligands:||, , , ,|
|Gene:||ACE, DCP, DCP1 (Homo sapiens)|
|Related:||1o86, 1o8a, 1uze, 1uzf, 2iul, 3bkk|
Testis ACE co-crystal structure with novel inhibitor lisW
Human ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) (EC 22.214.171.124) is an important drug target because of its role in the regulation of blood pressure via the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Somatic ACE comprises two homologous domains, the differing substrate preferences of which present a new avenue for domain-selective inhibitor design. We have co-crystallized lisW-S, a C-domain-selective derivative of the drug lisinopril, with human testis ACE and determined a structure using X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 2.30 A (1 A=0.1 nm). In this structure, lisW-S is seen to have a similar binding mode to its parent compound lisinopril, but the P2' tryptophan moiety takes a different conformation to that seen in other inhibitors having a tryptophan residue in this position. We have examined further the domain-specific interactions of this inhibitor by mutating C-domain-specific active-site residues to their N domain equivalents, then assessing the effect of the mutation on inhibition by lisW-S using a fluorescence-based assay. Kinetics analysis shows a 258-fold domain-selectivity that is largely due to the co-operative effect of C-domain-specific residues in the S2' subsite. The high affinity and selectivity of this inhibitor make it a good lead candidate for cardiovascular drug development.
Characterization of domain-selective inhibitor binding in angiotensin-converting enzyme using a novel derivative of lisinopril., Watermeyer JM, Kroger WL, O'Neill HG, Sewell BT, Sturrock ED, Biochem J. 2010 Apr 28;428(1):67-74. PMID:20233165
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
[ACE_HUMAN] Genetic variations in ACE may be a cause of susceptibility to ischemic stroke (ISCHSTR) [MIM:601367]; also known as cerebrovascular accident or cerebral infarction. A stroke is an acute neurologic event leading to death of neural tissue of the brain and resulting in loss of motor, sensory and/or cognitive function. Ischemic strokes, resulting from vascular occlusion, is considered to be a highly complex disease consisting of a group of heterogeneous disorders with multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. Defects in ACE are a cause of renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD) [MIM:267430]. RTD is an autosomal recessive severe disorder of renal tubular development characterized by persistent fetal anuria and perinatal death, probably due to pulmonary hypoplasia from early-onset oligohydramnios (the Potter phenotype). Genetic variations in ACE are associated with susceptibility to microvascular complications of diabetes type 3 (MVCD3) [MIM:612624]. These are pathological conditions that develop in numerous tissues and organs as a consequence of diabetes mellitus. They include diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy leading to end-stage renal disease, and diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic retinopathy remains the major cause of new-onset blindness among diabetic adults. It is characterized by vascular permeability and increased tissue ischemia and angiogenesis. Defects in ACE are a cause of susceptibility to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) [MIM:614519]. A pathological condition characterized by bleeding into one or both cerebral hemispheres including the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex. It is often associated with hypertension and craniocerebral trauma. Intracerebral bleeding is a common cause of stroke.
[ACE_HUMAN] Converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II by release of the terminal His-Leu, this results in an increase of the vasoconstrictor activity of angiotensin. Also able to inactivate bradykinin, a potent vasodilator. Has also a glycosidase activity which releases GPI-anchored proteins from the membrane by cleaving the mannose linkage in the GPI moiety.
About this Structure
- Watermeyer JM, Kroger WL, O'Neill HG, Sewell BT, Sturrock ED. Characterization of domain-selective inhibitor binding in angiotensin-converting enzyme using a novel derivative of lisinopril. Biochem J. 2010 Apr 28;428(1):67-74. PMID:20233165 doi:10.1042/BJ20100056
- ↑ Casas JP, Hingorani AD, Bautista LE, Sharma P. Meta-analysis of genetic studies in ischemic stroke: thirty-two genes involving approximately 18,000 cases and 58,000 controls. Arch Neurol. 2004 Nov;61(11):1652-61. PMID:15534175 doi:61/11/1652
- ↑ Gribouval O, Gonzales M, Neuhaus T, Aziza J, Bieth E, Laurent N, Bouton JM, Feuillet F, Makni S, Ben Amar H, Laube G, Delezoide AL, Bouvier R, Dijoud F, Ollagnon-Roman E, Roume J, Joubert M, Antignac C, Gubler MC. Mutations in genes in the renin-angiotensin system are associated with autosomal recessive renal tubular dysgenesis. Nat Genet. 2005 Sep;37(9):964-8. Epub 2005 Aug 14. PMID:16116425 doi:ng1623
- ↑ Slowik A, Turaj W, Dziedzic T, Haefele A, Pera J, Malecki MT, Glodzik-Sobanska L, Szermer P, Figlewicz DA, Szczudlik A. DD genotype of ACE gene is a risk factor for intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurology. 2004 Jul 27;63(2):359-61. PMID:15277638