Crystal structure of MAPKAK kinase 2 (MK2) complexed with a spiroazetidine-tetracyclic ATP site inhibitor
[MAPK2_HUMAN] Stress-activated serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in cytokines production, endocytosis, reorganization of the cytoskeleton, cell migration, cell cycle control, chromatin remodeling, DNA damage response and transcriptional regulation. Following stress, it is phosphorylated and activated by MAP kinase p38-alpha/MAPK14, leading to phosphorylation of substrates. Phosphorylates serine in the peptide sequence, Hyd-X-R-X(2)-S, where Hyd is a large hydrophobic residue. Phosphorylates ALOX5, CDC25B, CDC25C, ELAVL1, HNRNPA0, HSF1, HSP27/HSPB1, KRT18, KRT20, LIMK1, LSP1, PABPC1, PARN, PDE4A, RCSD1, RPS6KA3, TAB3 and TTP/ZFP36. Mediates phosphorylation of HSP27/HSPB1 in response to stress, leading to dissociate HSP27/HSPB1 from large small heat-shock protein (sHsps) oligomers and impair their chaperone activities and ability to protect against oxidative stress effectively. Involved in inflammatory response by regulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL6 production post-transcriptionally: acts by phosphorylating AU-rich elements (AREs)-binding proteins ELAVL1, HNRNPA0, PABPC1 and TTP/ZFP36, leading to regulate the stability and translation of TNF and IL6 mRNAs. Phosphorylation of TTP/ZFP36, a major post-transcriptional regulator of TNF, promotes its binding to 14-3-3 proteins and reduces its ARE mRNA affinity leading to inhibition of dependent degradation of ARE-containing transcript. Also involved in late G2/M checkpoint following DNA damage through a process of post-transcriptional mRNA stabilization: following DNA damage, relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm and phosphorylates HNRNPA0 and PARN, leading to stabilize GADD45A mRNA. Involved in toll-like receptor signaling pathway (TLR) in dendritic cells: required for acute TLR-induced macropinocytosis by phosphorylating and activating RPS6KA3.               
Publication Abstract from PubMed
Spirocyclopropane- and spiroazetidine-substituted tetracycles 13D-E and 16A are described as orally active MK2 inhibitors. The spiroazetidine derivatives are potent MK2 inhibitors with IC(50)<3 nM and inhibit the release of TNFalpha (IC(50)<0.3 microM) from hPBMCs and hsp27 phosphorylation in anisomycin stimulated THP-1 cells. The spirocyclopropane analogues are less potent against MK2 (IC(50)=0.05-0.23 microM), less potent in cells (IC(50)<1.1 microM), but show good oral absorption. Compound 13E (100mg/kg po; bid) showed oral activity in rAIA and mCIA, with significant reduction of swelling and histological score.
In vivo and in vitro SAR of tetracyclic MAPKAP-K2 (MK2) inhibitors. Part II.,Revesz L, Schlapbach A, Aichholz R, Dawson J, Feifel R, Hawtin S, Littlewood-Evans A, Koch G, Kroemer M, Mobitz H, Scheufler C, Velcicky J, Huppertz C Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010 Aug 1;20(15):4719-23. Epub 2010 Apr 11. PMID:20591669
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.