3mop

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3mop, resolution 3.40Å ()
Gene: MYD88 (Homo sapiens), IRAK4 (Homo sapiens), IRAK2 (Homo sapiens)
Activity: Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase, with EC number 2.7.11.1


Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


Contents

The ternary Death Domain complex of MyD88, IRAK4, and IRAK2

Publication Abstract from PubMed

MyD88, IRAK4 and IRAK2 are critical signalling mediators of the TLR/IL1-R superfamily. Here we report the crystal structure of the MyD88-IRAK4-IRAK2 death domain (DD) complex, which surprisingly reveals a left-handed helical oligomer that consists of 6 MyD88, 4 IRAK4 and 4 IRAK2 DDs. Assembly of this helical signalling tower is hierarchical, in which MyD88 recruits IRAK4 and the MyD88-IRAK4 complex recruits the IRAK4 substrates IRAK2 or the related IRAK1. Formation of these Myddosome complexes brings the kinase domains of IRAKs into proximity for phosphorylation and activation. Composite binding sites are required for recruitment of the individual DDs in the complex, which are confirmed by mutagenesis and previously identified signalling mutations. Specificities in Myddosome formation are dictated by both molecular complementarity and correspondence of surface electrostatics. The MyD88-IRAK4-IRAK2 complex provides a template for Toll signalling in Drosophila and an elegant mechanism for versatile assembly and regulation of DD complexes in signal transduction.

Helical assembly in the MyD88-IRAK4-IRAK2 complex in TLR/IL-1R signalling., Lin SC, Lo YC, Wu H, Nature. 2010 Jun 17;465(7300):885-90. Epub 2010 May 19. PMID:20485341

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Disease

[MYD88_HUMAN] Defects in MYD88 are the cause of MYD88 deficiency (MYD88D) [MIM:612260]; also known as recurrent pyogenic bacterial infections due to MYD88 deficiency. Patients suffer from autosomal recessive, life-threatening, often recurrent pyogenic bacterial infections, including invasive pneumococcal disease, and die between 1 and 11 months of age. Surviving patients are otherwise healthy, with normal resistance to other microbes, and their clinical status improved with age.[1][2] [IRAK4_HUMAN] Defects in IRAK4 are the cause of recurrent isolated invasive pneumococcal disease type 1 (IPD1) [MIM:610799]. Recurrent invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is defined as two episodes of IPD occurring at least 1 month apart, whether caused by the same or different serotypes or strains. Recurrent IPD occurs in at least 2% of patients in most series, making IPD the most important known risk factor for subsequent IPD.[3] Defects in IRAK4 are the cause of IRAK4 deficiency (IRAK4D) [MIM:607676]. IRAK4 deficiency causes extracellular pyogenic bacterial and fungal infections in otherwise healthy children.[4][5]

Function

[MYD88_HUMAN] Adapter protein involved in the Toll-like receptor and IL-1 receptor signaling pathway in the innate immune response. Acts via IRAK1, IRAK2, IRF7 and TRAF6, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response. Increases IL-8 transcription. Involved in IL-18-mediated signaling pathway. Activates IRF1 resulting in its rapid migration into the nucleus to mediate an efficient induction of IFN-beta, NOS2/INOS, and IL12A genes (By similarity).[6][7][8][9] [IRAK2_HUMAN] Binds to the IL-1 type I receptor following IL-1 engagement, triggering intracellular signaling cascades leading to transcriptional up-regulation and mRNA stabilization.[10][11] [IRAK4_HUMAN] Serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays a critical role in initiating innate immune response against foreign pathogens. Involved in Toll-like receptor (TLR) and IL-1R signaling pathways. Is rapidly recruited by MYD88 to the receptor-signaling complex upon TLR activation to form the Myddosome together with IRAK2. Phosphorylates initially IRAK1, thus stimulating the kinase activity and intensive autophosphorylation of IRAK1. Phosphorylates E3 ubiquitin ligases Pellino proteins (PELI1, PELI2 and PELI3) to promote pellino-mediated polyubiquitination of IRAK1. Then, the ubiquitin-binding domain of IKBKG/NEMO binds to polyubiquitinated IRAK1 bringing together the IRAK1-MAP3K7/TAK1-TRAF6 complex and the NEMO-IKKA-IKKB complex. In turn, MAP3K7/TAK1 activates IKKs (CHUK/IKKA and IKBKB/IKKB) leading to NF-kappa-B nuclear translocation and activation. Alternatively, phosphorylates TIRAP to promote its ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. Phosphorylates NCF1 and regulates NADPH oxidase activation after LPS stimulation suggesting a similar mechanism during microbial infections.[12][13][14][15][16][17][18]

About this Structure

3mop is a 14 chain structure with sequence from Homo sapiens. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

See Also

Reference

  • Lin SC, Lo YC, Wu H. Helical assembly in the MyD88-IRAK4-IRAK2 complex in TLR/IL-1R signalling. Nature. 2010 Jun 17;465(7300):885-90. Epub 2010 May 19. PMID:20485341 doi:10.1038/nature09121
  1. Ohnishi H, Tochio H, Kato Z, Orii KE, Li A, Kimura T, Hiroaki H, Kondo N, Shirakawa M. Structural basis for the multiple interactions of the MyD88 TIR domain in TLR4 signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jun 23;106(25):10260-5. Epub 2009 Jun 8. PMID:19506249
  2. von Bernuth H, Picard C, Jin Z, Pankla R, Xiao H, Ku CL, Chrabieh M, Mustapha IB, Ghandil P, Camcioglu Y, Vasconcelos J, Sirvent N, Guedes M, Vitor AB, Herrero-Mata MJ, Arostegui JI, Rodrigo C, Alsina L, Ruiz-Ortiz E, Juan M, Fortuny C, Yague J, Anton J, Pascal M, Chang HH, Janniere L, Rose Y, Garty BZ, Chapel H, Issekutz A, Marodi L, Rodriguez-Gallego C, Banchereau J, Abel L, Li X, Chaussabel D, Puel A, Casanova JL. Pyogenic bacterial infections in humans with MyD88 deficiency. Science. 2008 Aug 1;321(5889):691-6. PMID:18669862 doi:321/5889/691
  3. Ku CL, Picard C, Erdos M, Jeurissen A, Bustamante J, Puel A, von Bernuth H, Filipe-Santos O, Chang HH, Lawrence T, Raes M, Marodi L, Bossuyt X, Casanova JL. IRAK4 and NEMO mutations in otherwise healthy children with recurrent invasive pneumococcal disease. J Med Genet. 2007 Jan;44(1):16-23. Epub 2006 Sep 1. PMID:16950813 doi:jmg.2006.044446
  4. Medvedev AE, Lentschat A, Kuhns DB, Blanco JC, Salkowski C, Zhang S, Arditi M, Gallin JI, Vogel SN. Distinct mutations in IRAK-4 confer hyporesponsiveness to lipopolysaccharide and interleukin-1 in a patient with recurrent bacterial infections. J Exp Med. 2003 Aug 18;198(4):521-31. PMID:12925671 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20030701
  5. Picard C, Puel A, Bonnet M, Ku CL, Bustamante J, Yang K, Soudais C, Dupuis S, Feinberg J, Fieschi C, Elbim C, Hitchcock R, Lammas D, Davies G, Al-Ghonaium A, Al-Rayes H, Al-Jumaah S, Al-Hajjar S, Al-Mohsen IZ, Frayha HH, Rucker R, Hawn TR, Aderem A, Tufenkeji H, Haraguchi S, Day NK, Good RA, Gougerot-Pocidalo MA, Ozinsky A, Casanova JL. Pyogenic bacterial infections in humans with IRAK-4 deficiency. Science. 2003 Mar 28;299(5615):2076-9. Epub 2003 Mar 13. PMID:12637671 doi:10.1126/science.1081902
  6. Bonnert TP, Garka KE, Parnet P, Sonoda G, Testa JR, Sims JE. The cloning and characterization of human MyD88: a member of an IL-1 receptor related family. FEBS Lett. 1997 Jan 27;402(1):81-4. PMID:9013863
  7. Kawai T, Sato S, Ishii KJ, Coban C, Hemmi H, Yamamoto M, Terai K, Matsuda M, Inoue J, Uematsu S, Takeuchi O, Akira S. Interferon-alpha induction through Toll-like receptors involves a direct interaction of IRF7 with MyD88 and TRAF6. Nat Immunol. 2004 Oct;5(10):1061-8. Epub 2004 Sep 7. PMID:15361868 doi:10.1038/ni1118
  8. Semaan N, Alsaleh G, Gottenberg JE, Wachsmann D, Sibilia J. Etk/BMX, a Btk family tyrosine kinase, and Mal contribute to the cross-talk between MyD88 and FAK pathways. J Immunol. 2008 Mar 1;180(5):3485-91. PMID:18292575
  9. Ohnishi H, Tochio H, Kato Z, Orii KE, Li A, Kimura T, Hiroaki H, Kondo N, Shirakawa M. Structural basis for the multiple interactions of the MyD88 TIR domain in TLR4 signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jun 23;106(25):10260-5. Epub 2009 Jun 8. PMID:19506249
  10. Muzio M, Ni J, Feng P, Dixit VM. IRAK (Pelle) family member IRAK-2 and MyD88 as proximal mediators of IL-1 signaling. Science. 1997 Nov 28;278(5343):1612-5. PMID:9374458
  11. Wesche H, Gao X, Li X, Kirschning CJ, Stark GR, Cao Z. IRAK-M is a novel member of the Pelle/interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) family. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jul 2;274(27):19403-10. PMID:10383454
  12. Li S, Strelow A, Fontana EJ, Wesche H. IRAK-4: a novel member of the IRAK family with the properties of an IRAK-kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Apr 16;99(8):5567-72. PMID:11960013 doi:10.1073/pnas.082100399
  13. Burns K, Janssens S, Brissoni B, Olivos N, Beyaert R, Tschopp J. Inhibition of interleukin 1 receptor/Toll-like receptor signaling through the alternatively spliced, short form of MyD88 is due to its failure to recruit IRAK-4. J Exp Med. 2003 Jan 20;197(2):263-8. PMID:12538665
  14. Qin J, Jiang Z, Qian Y, Casanova JL, Li X. IRAK4 kinase activity is redundant for interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor-associated kinase phosphorylation and IL-1 responsiveness. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jun 18;279(25):26748-53. Epub 2004 Apr 14. PMID:15084582 doi:10.1074/jbc.M400785200
  15. Pacquelet S, Johnson JL, Ellis BA, Brzezinska AA, Lane WS, Munafo DB, Catz SD. Cross-talk between IRAK-4 and the NADPH oxidase. Biochem J. 2007 May 1;403(3):451-61. PMID:17217339 doi:10.1042/BJ20061184
  16. Koziczak-Holbro M, Joyce C, Gluck A, Kinzel B, Muller M, Tschopp C, Mathison JC, Davis CN, Gram H. IRAK-4 kinase activity is required for interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor- and toll-like receptor 7-mediated signaling and gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2007 May 4;282(18):13552-60. Epub 2007 Mar 2. PMID:17337443 doi:10.1074/jbc.M700548200
  17. Ordureau A, Smith H, Windheim M, Peggie M, Carrick E, Morrice N, Cohen P. The IRAK-catalysed activation of the E3 ligase function of Pellino isoforms induces the Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of IRAK1. Biochem J. 2008 Jan 1;409(1):43-52. PMID:17997719 doi:10.1042/BJ20071365
  18. Dunne A, Carpenter S, Brikos C, Gray P, Strelow A, Wesche H, Morrice N, O'Neill LA. IRAK1 and IRAK4 promote phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and degradation of MyD88 adaptor-like (Mal). J Biol Chem. 2010 Jun 11;285(24):18276-82. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.098137. Epub, 2010 Apr 16. PMID:20400509 doi:10.1074/jbc.M109.098137

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