3ovl

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3ovl, resolution 1.81Å ()
Ligands: , ,
Related: 2on9, 3fqp


Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


Contents

Structure of an amyloid forming peptide VQIVYK from the TAU protein in complex with orange G

Publication Abstract from PubMed

Diagnosing and treating Alzheimer's and other diseases associated with amyloid fibers remains a great challenge despite intensive research. To aid in this effort, we present atomic structures of fiber-forming segments of proteins involved in Alzheimer's disease in complex with small molecule binders, determined by X-ray microcrystallography. The fiber-like complexes consist of pairs of beta-sheets, with small molecules binding between the sheets, roughly parallel to the fiber axis. The structures suggest that apolar molecules drift along the fiber, consistent with the observation of nonspecific binding to a variety of amyloid proteins. In contrast, negatively charged orange-G binds specifically to lysine side chains of adjacent sheets. These structures provide molecular frameworks for the design of diagnostics and drugs for protein aggregation diseases.

Towards a pharmacophore for amyloid., Landau M, Sawaya MR, Faull KF, Laganowsky A, Jiang L, Sievers SA, Liu J, Barrio JR, Eisenberg D, PLoS Biol. 2011 Jun;9(6):e1001080. Epub 2011 Jun 14. PMID:21695112

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Disease

[TAU_HUMAN] Note=In Alzheimer disease, the neuronal cytoskeleton in the brain is progressively disrupted and replaced by tangles of paired helical filaments (PHF) and straight filaments, mainly composed of hyperphosphorylated forms of TAU (PHF-TAU or AD P-TAU). O-GlcNAcylation is greatly reduced in Alzheimer disease brain cerebral cortex leading to an increase in TAU/MAPT phosphorylations.[1][2][3] Defects in MAPT are a cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) [MIM:600274]; also called frontotemporal dementia (FTD), pallido-ponto-nigral degeneration (PPND) or historically termed Pick complex. This form of frontotemporal dementia is characterized by presenile dementia with behavioral changes, deterioration of cognitive capacities and loss of memory. In some cases, parkinsonian symptoms are prominent. Neuropathological changes include frontotemporal atrophy often associated with atrophy of the basal ganglia, substantia nigra, amygdala. In most cases, protein tau deposits are found in glial cells and/or neurons.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28] Defects in MAPT are a cause of Pick disease of the brain (PIDB) [MIM:172700]. It is a rare form of dementia pathologically defined by severe atrophy, neuronal loss and gliosis. It is characterized by the occurrence of tau-positive inclusions, swollen neurons (Pick cells) and argentophilic neuronal inclusions known as Pick bodies that disproportionally affect the frontal and temporal cortical regions. Clinical features include aphasia, apraxia, confusion, anomia, memory loss and personality deterioration.[29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36] Note=Defects in MAPT are a cause of corticobasal degeneration (CBD). It is marked by extrapyramidal signs and apraxia and can be associated with memory loss. Neuropathologic features may overlap Alzheimer disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and Parkinson disease.[37][38][39] Defects in MAPT are a cause of progressive supranuclear palsy type 1 (PSNP1) [MIM:601104]; also abbreviated as PSP and also known as Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome. PSNP1 is characterized by akinetic-rigid syndrome, supranuclear gaze palsy, pyramidal tract dysfunction, pseudobulbar signs and cognitive capacities deterioration. Neurofibrillary tangles and gliosis but no amyloid plaques are found in diseased brains. Most cases appear to be sporadic, with a significant association with a common haplotype including the MAPT gene and the flanking regions. Familial cases show an autosomal dominant pattern of transmission with incomplete penetrance; genetic analysis of a few cases showed the occurrence of tau mutations, including a deletion of Asn-613.[40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48] Defects in MAPT are a cause of Parkinson-dementia syndrome (PARDE) [MIM:260540]. A syndrome characterized by parkinsonism tremor, rigidity, dementia, ophthalmoparesis and pyramidal signs. Neurofibrillary degeneration occurs in the hippocampus, basal ganglia and brainstem nuclei.[49][50][51]

Function

[TAU_HUMAN] Promotes microtubule assembly and stability, and might be involved in the establishment and maintenance of neuronal polarity. The C-terminus binds axonal microtubules while the N-terminus binds neural plasma membrane components, suggesting that tau functions as a linker protein between both. Axonal polarity is predetermined by TAU/MAPT localization (in the neuronal cell) in the domain of the cell body defined by the centrosome. The short isoforms allow plasticity of the cytoskeleton whereas the longer isoforms may preferentially play a role in its stabilization.[52]

About this Structure

3ovl is a 1 chain structure. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

Reference

  • Landau M, Sawaya MR, Faull KF, Laganowsky A, Jiang L, Sievers SA, Liu J, Barrio JR, Eisenberg D. Towards a pharmacophore for amyloid. PLoS Biol. 2011 Jun;9(6):e1001080. Epub 2011 Jun 14. PMID:21695112 doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001080
  1. Liu F, Shi J, Tanimukai H, Gu J, Gu J, Grundke-Iqbal I, Iqbal K, Gong CX. Reduced O-GlcNAcylation links lower brain glucose metabolism and tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease. Brain. 2009 Jul;132(Pt 7):1820-32. doi: 10.1093/brain/awp099. Epub 2009 May 18. PMID:19451179 doi:10.1093/brain/awp099
  2. Goedert M, Spillantini MG, Jakes R, Rutherford D, Crowther RA. Multiple isoforms of human microtubule-associated protein tau: sequences and localization in neurofibrillary tangles of Alzheimer's disease. Neuron. 1989 Oct;3(4):519-26. PMID:2484340
  3. Rademakers R, Dermaut B, Peeters K, Cruts M, Heutink P, Goate A, Van Broeckhoven C. Tau (MAPT) mutation Arg406Trp presenting clinically with Alzheimer disease does not share a common founder in Western Europe. Hum Mutat. 2003 Nov;22(5):409-11. PMID:14517953 doi:10.1002/humu.10269
  4. Liu F, Shi J, Tanimukai H, Gu J, Gu J, Grundke-Iqbal I, Iqbal K, Gong CX. Reduced O-GlcNAcylation links lower brain glucose metabolism and tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease. Brain. 2009 Jul;132(Pt 7):1820-32. doi: 10.1093/brain/awp099. Epub 2009 May 18. PMID:19451179 doi:10.1093/brain/awp099
  5. Goedert M, Spillantini MG, Jakes R, Rutherford D, Crowther RA. Multiple isoforms of human microtubule-associated protein tau: sequences and localization in neurofibrillary tangles of Alzheimer's disease. Neuron. 1989 Oct;3(4):519-26. PMID:2484340
  6. Rademakers R, Dermaut B, Peeters K, Cruts M, Heutink P, Goate A, Van Broeckhoven C. Tau (MAPT) mutation Arg406Trp presenting clinically with Alzheimer disease does not share a common founder in Western Europe. Hum Mutat. 2003 Nov;22(5):409-11. PMID:14517953 doi:10.1002/humu.10269
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  27. Yasuda M, Nakamura Y, Kawamata T, Kaneyuki H, Maeda K, Komure O. Phenotypic heterogeneity within a new family with the MAPT p301s mutation. Ann Neurol. 2005 Dec;58(6):920-8. PMID:16240366 doi:10.1002/ana.20668
  28. Zarranz JJ, Ferrer I, Lezcano E, Forcadas MI, Eizaguirre B, Atares B, Puig B, Gomez-Esteban JC, Fernandez-Maiztegui C, Rouco I, Perez-Concha T, Fernandez M, Rodriguez O, Rodriguez-Martinez AB, de Pancorbo MM, Pastor P, Perez-Tur J. A novel mutation (K317M) in the MAPT gene causes FTDP and motor neuron disease. Neurology. 2005 May 10;64(9):1578-85. PMID:15883319 doi:10.1212/01.WNL.0000160116.65034.12
  29. Liu F, Shi J, Tanimukai H, Gu J, Gu J, Grundke-Iqbal I, Iqbal K, Gong CX. Reduced O-GlcNAcylation links lower brain glucose metabolism and tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease. Brain. 2009 Jul;132(Pt 7):1820-32. doi: 10.1093/brain/awp099. Epub 2009 May 18. PMID:19451179 doi:10.1093/brain/awp099
  30. Goedert M, Spillantini MG, Jakes R, Rutherford D, Crowther RA. Multiple isoforms of human microtubule-associated protein tau: sequences and localization in neurofibrillary tangles of Alzheimer's disease. Neuron. 1989 Oct;3(4):519-26. PMID:2484340
  31. Rademakers R, Dermaut B, Peeters K, Cruts M, Heutink P, Goate A, Van Broeckhoven C. Tau (MAPT) mutation Arg406Trp presenting clinically with Alzheimer disease does not share a common founder in Western Europe. Hum Mutat. 2003 Nov;22(5):409-11. PMID:14517953 doi:10.1002/humu.10269
  32. Murrell JR, Spillantini MG, Zolo P, Guazzelli M, Smith MJ, Hasegawa M, Redi F, Crowther RA, Pietrini P, Ghetti B, Goedert M. Tau gene mutation G389R causes a tauopathy with abundant pick body-like inclusions and axonal deposits. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1999 Dec;58(12):1207-26. PMID:10604746
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  34. Rizzini C, Goedert M, Hodges JR, Smith MJ, Jakes R, Hills R, Xuereb JH, Crowther RA, Spillantini MG. Tau gene mutation K257T causes a tauopathy similar to Pick's disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2000 Nov;59(11):990-1001. PMID:11089577
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  36. Rosso SM, van Herpen E, Deelen W, Kamphorst W, Severijnen LA, Willemsen R, Ravid R, Niermeijer MF, Dooijes D, Smith MJ, Goedert M, Heutink P, van Swieten JC. A novel tau mutation, S320F, causes a tauopathy with inclusions similar to those in Pick's disease. Ann Neurol. 2002 Mar;51(3):373-6. PMID:11891833
  37. Liu F, Shi J, Tanimukai H, Gu J, Gu J, Grundke-Iqbal I, Iqbal K, Gong CX. Reduced O-GlcNAcylation links lower brain glucose metabolism and tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease. Brain. 2009 Jul;132(Pt 7):1820-32. doi: 10.1093/brain/awp099. Epub 2009 May 18. PMID:19451179 doi:10.1093/brain/awp099
  38. Goedert M, Spillantini MG, Jakes R, Rutherford D, Crowther RA. Multiple isoforms of human microtubule-associated protein tau: sequences and localization in neurofibrillary tangles of Alzheimer's disease. Neuron. 1989 Oct;3(4):519-26. PMID:2484340
  39. Rademakers R, Dermaut B, Peeters K, Cruts M, Heutink P, Goate A, Van Broeckhoven C. Tau (MAPT) mutation Arg406Trp presenting clinically with Alzheimer disease does not share a common founder in Western Europe. Hum Mutat. 2003 Nov;22(5):409-11. PMID:14517953 doi:10.1002/humu.10269
  40. Liu F, Shi J, Tanimukai H, Gu J, Gu J, Grundke-Iqbal I, Iqbal K, Gong CX. Reduced O-GlcNAcylation links lower brain glucose metabolism and tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease. Brain. 2009 Jul;132(Pt 7):1820-32. doi: 10.1093/brain/awp099. Epub 2009 May 18. PMID:19451179 doi:10.1093/brain/awp099
  41. Goedert M, Spillantini MG, Jakes R, Rutherford D, Crowther RA. Multiple isoforms of human microtubule-associated protein tau: sequences and localization in neurofibrillary tangles of Alzheimer's disease. Neuron. 1989 Oct;3(4):519-26. PMID:2484340
  42. Rademakers R, Dermaut B, Peeters K, Cruts M, Heutink P, Goate A, Van Broeckhoven C. Tau (MAPT) mutation Arg406Trp presenting clinically with Alzheimer disease does not share a common founder in Western Europe. Hum Mutat. 2003 Nov;22(5):409-11. PMID:14517953 doi:10.1002/humu.10269
  43. Higgins JJ, Adler RL, Loveless JM. Mutational analysis of the tau gene in progressive supranuclear palsy. Neurology. 1999 Oct 22;53(7):1421-4. PMID:10534245
  44. Pastor P, Pastor E, Carnero C, Vela R, Garcia T, Amer G, Tolosa E, Oliva R. Familial atypical progressive supranuclear palsy associated with homozigosity for the delN296 mutation in the tau gene. Ann Neurol. 2001 Feb;49(2):263-7. PMID:11220749
  45. Poorkaj P, Muma NA, Zhukareva V, Cochran EJ, Shannon KM, Hurtig H, Koller WC, Bird TD, Trojanowski JQ, Lee VM, Schellenberg GD. An R5L tau mutation in a subject with a progressive supranuclear palsy phenotype. Ann Neurol. 2002 Oct;52(4):511-6. PMID:12325083 doi:10.1002/ana.10340
  46. Rossi G, Gasparoli E, Pasquali C, Di Fede G, Testa D, Albanese A, Bracco F, Tagliavini F. Progressive supranuclear palsy and Parkinson's disease in a family with a new mutation in the tau gene. Ann Neurol. 2004 Mar;55(3):448. PMID:14991829 doi:10.1002/ana.20006
  47. Oliva R, Pastor P. Tau gene delN296 mutation, Parkinson's disease, and atypical supranuclear palsy. Ann Neurol. 2004 Mar;55(3):448-9. PMID:14991828 doi:10.1002/ana.20025
  48. Ros R, Thobois S, Streichenberger N, Kopp N, Sanchez MP, Perez M, Hoenicka J, Avila J, Honnorat J, de Yebenes JG. A new mutation of the tau gene, G303V, in early-onset familial progressive supranuclear palsy. Arch Neurol. 2005 Sep;62(9):1444-50. PMID:16157753 doi:62/9/1444
  49. Liu F, Shi J, Tanimukai H, Gu J, Gu J, Grundke-Iqbal I, Iqbal K, Gong CX. Reduced O-GlcNAcylation links lower brain glucose metabolism and tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease. Brain. 2009 Jul;132(Pt 7):1820-32. doi: 10.1093/brain/awp099. Epub 2009 May 18. PMID:19451179 doi:10.1093/brain/awp099
  50. Goedert M, Spillantini MG, Jakes R, Rutherford D, Crowther RA. Multiple isoforms of human microtubule-associated protein tau: sequences and localization in neurofibrillary tangles of Alzheimer's disease. Neuron. 1989 Oct;3(4):519-26. PMID:2484340
  51. Rademakers R, Dermaut B, Peeters K, Cruts M, Heutink P, Goate A, Van Broeckhoven C. Tau (MAPT) mutation Arg406Trp presenting clinically with Alzheimer disease does not share a common founder in Western Europe. Hum Mutat. 2003 Nov;22(5):409-11. PMID:14517953 doi:10.1002/humu.10269
  52. Yoshida H, Goedert M. Phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein tau by AMPK-related kinases. J Neurochem. 2012 Jan;120(1):165-76. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2011.07523.x. Epub , 2011 Nov 11. PMID:21985311 doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2011.07523.x

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