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3p2x

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3p2x, resolution 2.00Å ()
Ligands: , ,
Non-Standard Residues:
Related: 3jsd, 3p33


Resources: FirstGlance, OCA, RCSB, PDBsum
Coordinates: save as pdb, mmCIF, xml


Contents

Insulin fibrillation is the Janus face of induced fit. A chiaral clamp stabilizes the native state at the expense of activity

Publication Abstract from PubMed

Naturally occurring mutations in insulin associated with diabetes mellitus identify critical determinants of its biological activity. Here, we describe the crystal structure of insulin Wakayama, a clinical variant in which a conserved valine in the A chain (residue A3) is substituted by leucine. The substitution occurs within a crevice adjoining the classical receptor-binding surface and impairs receptor binding by 500-fold, an unusually severe decrement among mutant insulins. To resolve whether such decreased activity is directly or indirectly mediated by the variant side chain, we have determined the crystal structure of Leu(A3)-insulin and investigated the photo-cross-linking properties of an A3 analogue containing p-azidophenylalanine. The structure, characterized in a novel crystal form as an R(6) zinc hexamer at 2.3 A resolution, is essentially identical to that of the wild-type R(6) hexamer. The variant side chain remains buried in a nativelike crevice with small adjustments in surrounding side chains. The corresponding photoactivatable analogue, although of low affinity, exhibits efficient cross-linking to the insulin receptor. The site of photo-cross-linking lies within a 14 kDa C-terminal domain of the alpha-subunit. This domain, unrelated in sequence to the major insulin-binding region in the N-terminal L1 beta-helix, is also contacted by photoactivatable probes at positions A8 and B25. Packing of Val(A3) at this interface may require a conformational change in the B chain to expose the A3-related crevice. The structure of insulin Wakayama thus evokes the reasoning of Sherlock Holmes in "the curious incident of the dog in the night": the apparent absence of structural perturbations (like the dog that did not bark) provides a critical clue to the function of a hidden receptor-binding surface.

Diabetes-associated mutations in human insulin: crystal structure and photo-cross-linking studies of a-chain variant insulin Wakayama., Wan ZL, Huang K, Xu B, Hu SQ, Wang S, Chu YC, Katsoyannis PG, Weiss MA, Biochemistry. 2005 Apr 5;44(13):5000-16. PMID:15794638

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

Disease

[INS_HUMAN] Defects in INS are the cause of familial hyperproinsulinemia (FHPRI) [MIM:176730].[1][2][3][4] Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent type 2 (IDDM2) [MIM:125852]. IDDM2 is a multifactorial disorder of glucose homeostasis that is characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. Clinical fetaures are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels.[5] Defects in INS are a cause of diabetes mellitus permanent neonatal (PNDM) [MIM:606176]. PNDM is a rare form of diabetes distinct from childhood-onset autoimmune diabetes mellitus type 1. It is characterized by insulin-requiring hyperglycemia that is diagnosed within the first months of life. Permanent neonatal diabetes requires lifelong therapy.[6][7] Defects in INS are a cause of maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 10 (MODY10) [MIM:613370]. MODY10 is a form of diabetes that is characterized by an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, onset in childhood or early adulthood (usually before 25 years of age), a primary defect in insulin secretion and frequent insulin-independence at the beginning of the disease.[8][9][10]

Function

[INS_HUMAN] Insulin decreases blood glucose concentration. It increases cell permeability to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids. It accelerates glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, and glycogen synthesis in liver.

About this Structure

3p2x is a 4 chain structure. Full crystallographic information is available from OCA.

See Also

Reference

  • Wan ZL, Huang K, Xu B, Hu SQ, Wang S, Chu YC, Katsoyannis PG, Weiss MA. Diabetes-associated mutations in human insulin: crystal structure and photo-cross-linking studies of a-chain variant insulin Wakayama. Biochemistry. 2005 Apr 5;44(13):5000-16. PMID:15794638 doi:10.1021/bi047585k
  • Wan ZL, Xu B, Chu YC, Katsoyannis PG, Weiss MA. Crystal structure of allo-Ile(A2)-insulin, an inactive chiral analogue: implications for the mechanism of receptor binding. Biochemistry. 2003 Nov 11;42(44):12770-83. PMID:14596591 doi:10.1021/bi034430o
  • Wan Z, Xu B, Huang K, Chu YC, Li B, Nakagawa SH, Qu Y, Hu SQ, Katsoyannis PG, Weiss MA. Enhancing the activity of insulin at the receptor interface: crystal structure and photo-cross-linking of A8 analogues. Biochemistry. 2004 Dec 28;43(51):16119-33. PMID:15610006 doi:10.1021/bi048223f
  • Baker EN, Blundell TL, Cutfield JF, Cutfield SM, Dodson EJ, Dodson GG, Hodgkin DM, Hubbard RE, Isaacs NW, Reynolds CD, et al.. The structure of 2Zn pig insulin crystals at 1.5 A resolution. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1988 Jul 6;319(1195):369-456. PMID:2905485
  • Derewenda U, Derewenda Z, Dodson EJ, Dodson GG, Reynolds CD, Smith GD, Sparks C, Swenson D. Phenol stabilizes more helix in a new symmetrical zinc insulin hexamer. Nature. 1989 Apr 13;338(6216):594-6. PMID:2648161 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/338594a0
  1. Chan SJ, Seino S, Gruppuso PA, Schwartz R, Steiner DF. A mutation in the B chain coding region is associated with impaired proinsulin conversion in a family with hyperproinsulinemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Apr;84(8):2194-7. PMID:3470784
  2. Barbetti F, Raben N, Kadowaki T, Cama A, Accili D, Gabbay KH, Merenich JA, Taylor SI, Roth J. Two unrelated patients with familial hyperproinsulinemia due to a mutation substituting histidine for arginine at position 65 in the proinsulin molecule: identification of the mutation by direct sequencing of genomic deoxyribonucleic acid amplified by polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990 Jul;71(1):164-9. PMID:2196279
  3. Shibasaki Y, Kawakami T, Kanazawa Y, Akanuma Y, Takaku F. Posttranslational cleavage of proinsulin is blocked by a point mutation in familial hyperproinsulinemia. J Clin Invest. 1985 Jul;76(1):378-80. PMID:4019786 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI111973
  4. Yano H, Kitano N, Morimoto M, Polonsky KS, Imura H, Seino Y. A novel point mutation in the human insulin gene giving rise to hyperproinsulinemia (proinsulin Kyoto). J Clin Invest. 1992 Jun;89(6):1902-7. PMID:1601997 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI115795
  5. Molven A, Ringdal M, Nordbo AM, Raeder H, Stoy J, Lipkind GM, Steiner DF, Philipson LH, Bergmann I, Aarskog D, Undlien DE, Joner G, Sovik O, Bell GI, Njolstad PR. Mutations in the insulin gene can cause MODY and autoantibody-negative type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 2008 Apr;57(4):1131-5. doi: 10.2337/db07-1467. Epub 2008 Jan 11. PMID:18192540 doi:10.2337/db07-1467
  6. Stoy J, Edghill EL, Flanagan SE, Ye H, Paz VP, Pluzhnikov A, Below JE, Hayes MG, Cox NJ, Lipkind GM, Lipton RB, Greeley SA, Patch AM, Ellard S, Steiner DF, Hattersley AT, Philipson LH, Bell GI. Insulin gene mutations as a cause of permanent neonatal diabetes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Sep 18;104(38):15040-4. Epub 2007 Sep 12. PMID:17855560 doi:10.1073/pnas.0707291104
  7. Edghill EL, Flanagan SE, Patch AM, Boustred C, Parrish A, Shields B, Shepherd MH, Hussain K, Kapoor RR, Malecki M, MacDonald MJ, Stoy J, Steiner DF, Philipson LH, Bell GI, Hattersley AT, Ellard S. Insulin mutation screening in 1,044 patients with diabetes: mutations in the INS gene are a common cause of neonatal diabetes but a rare cause of diabetes diagnosed in childhood or adulthood. Diabetes. 2008 Apr;57(4):1034-42. Epub 2007 Dec 27. PMID:18162506 doi:10.2337/db07-1405
  8. Molven A, Ringdal M, Nordbo AM, Raeder H, Stoy J, Lipkind GM, Steiner DF, Philipson LH, Bergmann I, Aarskog D, Undlien DE, Joner G, Sovik O, Bell GI, Njolstad PR. Mutations in the insulin gene can cause MODY and autoantibody-negative type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 2008 Apr;57(4):1131-5. doi: 10.2337/db07-1467. Epub 2008 Jan 11. PMID:18192540 doi:10.2337/db07-1467
  9. Edghill EL, Flanagan SE, Patch AM, Boustred C, Parrish A, Shields B, Shepherd MH, Hussain K, Kapoor RR, Malecki M, MacDonald MJ, Stoy J, Steiner DF, Philipson LH, Bell GI, Hattersley AT, Ellard S. Insulin mutation screening in 1,044 patients with diabetes: mutations in the INS gene are a common cause of neonatal diabetes but a rare cause of diabetes diagnosed in childhood or adulthood. Diabetes. 2008 Apr;57(4):1034-42. Epub 2007 Dec 27. PMID:18162506 doi:10.2337/db07-1405
  10. Boesgaard TW, Pruhova S, Andersson EA, Cinek O, Obermannova B, Lauenborg J, Damm P, Bergholdt R, Pociot F, Pisinger C, Barbetti F, Lebl J, Pedersen O, Hansen T. Further evidence that mutations in INS can be a rare cause of Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY). BMC Med Genet. 2010 Mar 12;11:42. doi: 10.1186/1471-2350-11-42. PMID:20226046 doi:10.1186/1471-2350-11-42

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