IL-2 mutant D10 ternary complex
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[IL2_HUMAN] Note=A chromosomal aberration involving IL2 is found in a form of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Translocation t(4;16)(q26;p13) with involves TNFRSF17. [IL2RG_HUMAN] Defects in IL2RG are the cause of severe combined immunodeficiency X-linked T-cell-negative/B-cell-positive/NK-cell-negative (XSCID) [MIM:300400]; also known as agammaglobulinemia Swiss type. A form of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. Patients present in infancy recurrent, persistent infections by opportunistic organisms. The common characteristic of all types of SCID is absence of T-cell-mediated cellular immunity due to a defect in T-cell development.          Defects in IL2RG are the cause of X-linked combined immunodeficiency (XCID) [MIM:312863]. XCID is a less severe form of X-linked immunodeficiency with a less severe degree of deficiency in cellular and humoral immunity than that seen in XSCID. 
[IL2_HUMAN] Produced by T-cells in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation, this protein is required for T-cell proliferation and other activities crucial to regulation of the immune response. Can stimulate B-cells, monocytes, lymphokine-activated killer cells, natural killer cells, and glioma cells. [IL2RG_HUMAN] Common subunit for the receptors for a variety of interleukins. [IL2RB_HUMAN] Receptor for interleukin-2. This beta subunit is involved in receptor mediated endocytosis and transduces the mitogenic signals of IL2.
Publication Abstract from PubMed
The immunostimulatory cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a growth factor for a wide range of leukocytes, including T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Considerable effort has been invested in using IL-2 as a therapeutic agent for a variety of immune disorders ranging from AIDS to cancer. However, adverse effects have limited its use in the clinic. On activated T cells, IL-2 signals through a quaternary 'high affinity' receptor complex consisting of IL-2, IL-2Ralpha (termed CD25), IL-2Rbeta and IL-2Rgamma. Naive T cells express only a low density of IL-2Rbeta and IL-2Rgamma, and are therefore relatively insensitive to IL-2, but acquire sensitivity after CD25 expression, which captures the cytokine and presents it to IL-2Rbeta and IL-2Rgamma. Here, using in vitro evolution, we eliminated the functional requirement of IL-2 for CD25 expression by engineering an IL-2 'superkine' (also called super-2) with increased binding affinity for IL-2Rbeta. Crystal structures of the IL-2 superkine in free and receptor-bound forms showed that the evolved mutations are principally in the core of the cytokine, and molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the evolved mutations stabilized IL-2, reducing the flexibility of a helix in the IL-2Rbeta binding site, into an optimized receptor-binding conformation resembling that when bound to CD25. The evolved mutations in the IL-2 superkine recapitulated the functional role of CD25 by eliciting potent phosphorylation of STAT5 and vigorous proliferation of T cells irrespective of CD25 expression. Compared to IL-2, the IL-2 superkine induced superior expansion of cytotoxic T cells, leading to improved antitumour responses in vivo, and elicited proportionally less expansion of T regulatory cells and reduced pulmonary oedema. Collectively, we show that in vitro evolution has mimicked the functional role of CD25 in enhancing IL-2 potency and regulating target cell specificity, which has implications for immunotherapy.
Exploiting a natural conformational switch to engineer an interleukin-2 'superkine',Levin AM, Bates DL, Ring AM, Krieg C, Lin JT, Su L, Moraga I, Raeber ME, Bowman GR, Novick P, Pande VS, Fathman CG, Boyman O, Garcia KC Nature. 2012 Mar 25. doi: 10.1038/nature10975. PMID:22446627
From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.